Bird O'clock

Unlocking the Fascinating World of the Ahanta Spurfowl

Just like humans, birds come in different species, each with unique characteristics. One such bird is the Ahanta Spurfowl, scientifically known as Pternistis ahantensis.

This bird is native to Ghana and can be found in the Ahanta and Sefwi Wiawso districts in the country’s western region. In this article, we will delve into the identification, plumages, and molts of this fascinating species.


Field Identification

The Ahanta Spurfowl is a medium-sized bird, measuring between 24-32 cm in length, and weighing approximately 257-425 grams. The males are larger than females.

The bird’s upper body is brown, while its underparts are buff, with black bars on its flanks. It has a red face, a black bill, and black feet.

Its tail is short and pointed, while its wings are rounded, with black and white markings.

Similar Species

The Ahanta Spurfowl has several look-alikes that may make it challenging to differentiate it from the rest. Examples of such birds include the Double-spurred Francolin and the Stone Partridge.

However, the Ahanta Spurfowl is distinguishable from these species due to its unique facial features. The bird has a distinct red patch on its face, which is absent in its look-alikes.


The Ahanta Spurfowl has two plumages, the adult and juvenile plumages. The adult plumage is more vibrant and unique.

The bird’s upperparts are chestnut-brown, while its underparts are buff with thin black bars. The face and crown are bright red, and the bird has a black mask covering its eyes.

Additionally, the male bird has two spurs on its legs that it uses to fight rivals during the mating season. The juvenile plumage is similar to the adult plumage, but the chestnut-brown feathers have white tips, while the black bars on the bird’s underparts are broader than in the adult plumage.

The juveniles also lack the spurs present in the adult male.


The Ahanta Spurfowl undergoes two molts in a year, the breeding and non-breeding molts. In the breeding season, which occurs between May and August, the bird molts its feathers and acquires a brighter and more vibrant plumage, mainly used for attracting mates.

During the non-breeding season, which occurs between November and February, the bird molts its feathers again, acquiring a less visible and duller plumage suitable for camouflage.


In conclusion, the Ahanta Spurfowl is a unique bird species native to Ghana. It has distinct characteristics that make it stand out from its look-alikes, such as its red facial patch and black mask covering its eyes.

The bird has two plumages, the adult and juvenile plumages, and undergoes molting twice a year. Knowing about this bird’s identification, plumages, and molts will help birdwatchers and bird enthusiasts identify it easily in the wild.

, as the purpose of the article is to inform rather than persuade.

Systematics History

The Ahanta Spurfowl, scientifically known as Pternistis ahantensis, was first described by Reichenow in 1893. Initially, the bird was classified under the Francolinus genus.

However, based on genetic and morphological analyses, the bird was later reclassified under the Pternistis genus. The Pternistis genus belongs to the family Phasianidae, which includes partridges, quails, and pheasants.

Geographic Variation

The Ahanta Spurfowl is native to Ghana and can be found in the Ahanta and Sefwi Wiawso districts in the country’s western region. However, the bird’s population has significantly declined due to habitat loss and hunting.

The bird’s distribution range has also decreased due to deforestation and urbanization in the region.


There are currently no recognized subspecies of the Ahanta Spurfowl. However, there have been reports of geographic variation within the bird’s population.

For example, some birds in the eastern parts of the bird’s range have a more extensive black bar on their flanks than those in the western parts of their range. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to determine whether this geographic variation warrants classifying the bird into subspecies.

Related Species

The Ahanta Spurfowl is closely related to other spurfowl species that belong to the Pternistis genus. Some examples of related species include the Double-spurred Francolin (Pternistis bicalcaratus) and the Chestnut-naped Francolin (Pternistis castaneicollis).

These species share similar physical characteristics, such as having two spurs on their legs, which they use for self-defense during the mating season.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The Ahanta Spurfowl’s historical distribution was much larger than its present range. The bird was once found in Togo, Benin, and Nigeria.

However, due to habitat fragmentation and degradation in these regions, the bird’s population has significantly declined, leading to its disappearance in some areas. Additionally, the bird’s distribution range has been affected by human activities such as deforestation and urbanization.

Forest conversion to agricultural land, logging, and mining has destroyed the bird’s natural habitat, leading to a decline in its population. Urbanization has also led to the loss of the bird’s habitat, as many people have settled in the bird’s distribution range, causing displacement of the bird’s population.

In Ghana, the bird’s population has been greatly impacted by hunting, as it is considered a delicacy among the local population. The bird is hunted for its meat, feathers, and to eliminate it as a perceived threat to crops.

The Ghanaian government has put measures to protect the bird’s population, including enacting laws that restrict hunting and promoting conservation through ecotourism.


The Ahanta Spurfowl’s systematics history, geographic variation, and related species play a significant role in understanding the bird’s evolution and relationship with other bird species. Additionally, historical changes to the bird’s distribution provide important insights into the environmental factors that have shaped the bird’s population over time.

Understanding these factors is critical in developing conservation strategies aimed at protecting the bird’s population. The conservation of the Ahanta Spurfowl is essential to ensuring the preservation of Ghana’s biodiversity, as well as the promotion of ecotourism in the region.

, as the purpose of the article is to inform rather than persuade.


The Ahanta Spurfowl is a forest-dwelling bird that prefers to live in dense, moist, and evergreen forests. The bird is commonly found in primary, secondary, and degraded forests, agricultural land with scattered trees, and wooded savannahs.

The trees in the bird’s habitat are often tall and have a closed canopy, providing the bird with shelter from predators and environmental stresses. The bird is also known to inhabit forest edges and clearings, provided enough cover is present.

Tropical forests are unfortunately under considerable threat due to habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation caused by human activities such as logging, agriculture, urbanization, and mining. Since the habitat of the Ahanta Spurfowl is in these exact tropical forests, the bird’s population has significantly declined due to the loss of its natural habitat.

Habitat fragmentation also affects the bird’s gene flow, as it prevents mating between different parts of the population, leading to reduced genetic diversity and inbreeding.

Movements and Migration

The Ahanta Spurfowl is primarily non-migratory, indicating that it does not undertake long-distance movements or migrations. However, it may have short-distance movements in search of food, water, and cover.

These movements are often seasonal, as they are influenced by changes in the bird’s habitat and resource availability. During the breeding season, which occurs between May and August, the Ahanta Spurfowl engages in territorial behaviors and attracts mates.

The birds have a distinct call that they use to attract mates and deter rivals. Once mating has occurred, the birds will remain in their territory to nest and raise their chicks.

During the non-breeding season, which occurs between November and February, the birds may wander in search of food and shelter.

Due to the bird’s habitat loss, deforestation, and hunting, their movements and range have been significantly reduced.

The population in Ghana is confined to the western regions of Ahanta and Sefwi Wiawso districts where only small populations remain. These populations could be at risk of extinction if they continue to face threats to their habitat and hunting pressure.

Conservation Efforts

To protect Ahanta Spurfowl populations, specific conservation measures are necessary. The Ghanaian government has enacted laws that regulate hunting and habitat destruction.

The laws impose strict penalties on anyone caught hunting these birds, and clearing their habitats. To enforce these laws, conservation organizations, such as the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), and BirdLife International, have supported the Ghanaian government in carrying out patrols, monitoring, and surveillance in the bird’s habitat.

Additionally, ecotourism initiatives have been set up to raise awareness about the bird’s conservation, its habitat, and the unique biodiversity of the region. These initiatives provide a source of income for the local population, incentivizing conservation efforts while promoting economic growth.


The Ahanta Spurfowl is a fascinating bird species that resides in tropical forests in Ghana. The bird’s habitat, movements, and migration patterns are significantly influenced by environmental factors such as habitat loss, fragmentation, and hunting.

Therefore, it is crucial to develop effective conservation measures that address these threats and preserve the bird’s population. These measures include laws and regulations that regulate hunting and the destruction of vital habitats, surveillance and monitoring, and ecotourism initiatives.

Protecting the Ahanta Spurfowl population not only ensures the preservation of Ghana’s biodiversity but also promotes sustainable economic growth through ecotourism. , as the purpose of the article is to inform rather than persuade.

Diet and Foraging


The Ahanta Spurfowl is an omnivorous bird that feeds on a wide range of plant and animal matter. The bird forages on the forest floor for food, using its sharp bill to pick up seeds, fruits, insects, snails, and small animals.

The bird is also known to feed on leaf matter, flower buds, and young shoots of plants. Additionally, the bird has been observed feeding on cultivated crops such as cassava, maize, and groundnut.


The Ahanta Spurfowl’s diet varies seasonally, depending on the availability of resources. During the non-breeding season, the bird feeds on a more substantial proportion of seeds and fruits than during the breeding season.

During the breeding season, the bird switches to an insect-based diet, as they are high in protein, which is required for raising young chicks.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

The Ahanta Spurfowl has a high metabolism that requires consistent food intake to maintain thermoregulation and metabolic homeostasis. This means that the bird’s body temperature must be regulated at all times, as it is crucial for physiological functions such as digestion and respiration.

The bird achieves this through adaptive thermogenesis, which involves generating heat via metabolic processes and behavioral adaptations such as roosting in sheltered areas and turning their back on the wind.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


The Ahanta Spurfowl is a vocal bird that produces a distinct call during the breeding season. The bird’s call is a series of deep, resonant, and reverberating notes that are typically loud and clear.

Males often use these calls to attract mates and establish territories. The bird has also been known to make a variety of sounds, such as cackles, chirps, and whistles, to communicate with other members of their population.

Additionally, the bird uses a range of body postures and gestures to communicate social status, aggression, and sexual receptivity. These vocalizations serve a critical function in the bird’s survival, aiding in communication, establishing territories, and attracting mates.

Due to the bird’s dense forest habitat, visual communication is challenging, and vocalizations are the primary mode of communication, making them essential for the bird’s survival and propagation.


The Ahanta Spurfowl is an omnivorous bird that feeds on a wide variety of plant and animal material. The bird’s diet varies seasonally, with insects making up a more substantial proportion of their diet during the breeding season.

The bird’s high metabolism requires consistent food intake to maintain a stable body temperature and metabolic homeostasis. The bird vocalizes distinct calls to communicate with other members of their population, establish territories and attract mates.

These vocalizations are a crucial survival mechanism, enabling communication in the densely forested habitat where visual communication is challenging. , as the purpose of the article is to inform rather than persuade.



The Ahanta Spurfowl is a ground-dwelling bird that moves primarily by walking or running, using its powerful legs. The bird has a robust body and a relatively short tail, which enables it to maintain balance during rapid movements.

The bird is swift and agile on the ground, using its wings to maintain balance as it moves through thick vegetation.

Self Maintenance

The bird maintains a healthy plumage by preening, which involves the bird using its beak to remove dirt, oil, and debris from its feathers. Preening helps to maintain the bird’s aerodynamics, insulation, and water repellency, essential for survival in the forest environment.

Agonistic Behavior

The Ahanta Spurfowl is territorial and engages in agonistic behavior to defend its territory and resources. These behaviors include puffing up their feathers to appear larger than rival birds, displaying head-down postures, and attacking rivals with their feet and spurs.

Additionally, males may engage in displays such as wing shaking and vocalizations to attract mates.

Sexual Behavior

The Ahanta Spurfowl is polyandrous, with males engaging in multiple mating with different females. During the breeding season, males establish territories and engage in calls, wing displays, and other behaviors to attract multiple mates.


The breeding season for the Ahanta Spurfowl occurs between May and August, with the peak season occurring in June and July. During this period, males establish territories where they attract multiple mates.

The nest is built in a concealed location on the forest floor, constructed from leaves, grass, and twigs. Females lay between 3-6 eggs per clutch, which are incubated for a period of 19-23 days.

The female is responsible for incubating the eggs and caring for the chicks until they are old enough to leave the nest, which occurs after approximately two to four weeks. Both parents are involved in feeding and protecting the chicks until they fledge.

Demography and Populations

The Ahanta Spurfowl’s population has significantly declined due to habitat loss, hunting, and disease. The bird’s geographic range has decreased, and populations have become fragmented, leading to genetic isolation and reduced genetic diversity.

The bird’s populations are also at risk of local extinction, mainly due to habitat fragmentation, hunting, and the bird’s restricted range. To protect the bird’s population, conservation efforts have been implemented by the Ghanaian government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).

The Ghana Wildlife Division has enacted laws and regulations to restrict hunting and habitat loss, while NGOs have supported ecotourism initiatives to incentivize conservation efforts while promoting local economic development.


Understanding the behavior, breeding, and demography of the Ahanta Spurfowl is critical in developing conservation strategies aimed at protecting the bird’s population. The bird’s behavior, which includes locomotion, self-maintenance, agonistic behavior, and sexual behavior, helps to establish communication and social structures in their dense forest habitat.

The bird’s breeding season occurs at a specific time of the year, where males engage in territorial behavior and attract multiple mates. However, demographic data has shown that the bird’s population has significantly declined, leading to genetic isolation and reduced genetic diversity.

These factors make the conservation of the Ahanta Spurfowl critical, as it is essential to preserve the unique biodiversity of the region and promote sustainable economic growth through ecotourism initiatives. In conclusion, we have learned about the Ahanta Spurfowl, a fascinating bird that is native to Ghana.

Through the various topics that we have covered, including identification, plumages, molts, systematics history, habitat, movements and migration, diet and foraging, sounds and vocal behavior, behavior, breeding, and demography and populations, we have gained an insightful understanding of the bird’s behavior, population trends, and survival strategies. The bird’s unique characteristics, including its red facial patch, black mask covering its eyes, distinct call, and polyandrous behavior, make it a vital part of Ghana’s biodiversity and underscoring the need for conservation efforts aimed at protecting its population.

Through continued research, conservation efforts, and public awareness, we can work towards preserving this culturally and ecologically significant bird species for generations to come.

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