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Uncovering the Hidden Beauty of the Blue-Winged Goose: A Must-Read for Nature Enthusiasts

The Blue-winged Goose, scientifically known as Cyanochen cyanoptera, is a striking bird species native to the Andes Mountains in South America. With its slate-blue wings and eye-catching cinnamon-colored underparts, this small goose is a true hidden gem within the avian world.

In this article, we’ll dive into the identification, plumages, and molts of the Blue-winged Goose. Whether you are a passionate birder or simply curious about the beauty of nature, this article is a must-read.


Field Identification

The Blue-winged Goose can be easily identified by its unique slate-blue wings that contrast beautifully with its cinnamon-colored underparts. The feathers of its head, neck, and upper back are dark greyish-black, which can sometimes appear iridescent under the light.

The tail and rump area are a dusky grey color. The wings have a whitish bar that is visible in flight.

The bill and legs are dark in color. An interesting fact about the Blue-winged Goose is that both sexes have similar plumage, so it can be challenging to distinguish between male and female.

Similar Species

The Blue-winged Goose can be sometimes mistaken with other tiny geese species such as the Ruddy-headed Goose or the Ashy-headed Goose, which both share a similar cinnamon-colored underparts. However, the former has more greyish-brown upperparts, a buffy forehead, and a dark reddish-brown head, while the latter has a grey head, a black bill, and a distinctive white throat patch.

Therefore, it’s important to pay close attention to the slate-blue wings when identifying Blue-winged Geese in the field as they are a unique feature of this species.


The Blue-winged Goose has two distinct plumages: the breeding and non-breeding plumages.

Breeding Plumage:

During the breeding season, the Blue-winged Goose undergoes a complete change in plumage, which is triggered by hormonal changes. The blue wings become brighter, and the cinnamon breast feathers become more vibrant.

The colors of the head, neck, and upper back take on a darker greyish-black hue, with often a green gloss, which adds to the beauty of the bird.


Breeding Plumage:

During the non-breeding season, the Blue-winged Goose’s plumage dulls down slightly, with the cinnamon breast feathers becoming more dusky.

However, the head, neck, and upper back feathers remain relatively dark.


The Blue-winged Goose goes through an annual prebasic molt, which results in the loss of old feathers and the growth of new ones. During this process, the Blue-winged Goose, like other waterfowl, becomes flightless, making it vulnerable to predators.

The prebasic molt occurs after breeding season and before the migration, which lasts from December to April. The molting process takes about two months, during which the appearance of the bird changes quite significantly.


The Blue-winged Goose is a fascinating species that captures the heart of bird enthusiasts. It’s a relatively small bird with unique plumages and colors, features that make it distinguishable from other bird species.

Through understanding its characteristics, identification, plumage changes and molting process, one can know this species better. As we appreciate mother nature’s beauty, we must respect and protect these avian treasures to save them for future generations.

Systematics History

The Blue-winged Goose belongs to the Anseriformes order, which includes ducks, geese, and swans. It falls under the family Anatidae, which comprises over 160 species.

However, its genus Cyanochen is placed in the tribe Tadornini, which consists of shelducks, and its closest relative is the Andean Goose.

Geographic Variation

The Blue-winged Goose has a limited geographic range, which is the high Andes throughout western Bolivia, southern Peru, and northern Chile. It prefers freshwater lakes, marshes, and wetlands, where it feeds on vegetation and small invertebrates.


There are two currently recognized subspecies of the Blue-winged Goose:

1) Cyanochen cyanoptera cyanoptera(nominate form): This is the most widespread and populous subspecies, covering the entire geographical range of the species. 2) Cyanochen cyanoptera orinomus: This subspecies is found in northern and northeastern Peru, especially in the Hunuco and Junn regions.

Related Species

The Blue-winged Goose shares its genus Cyanochen with the Andean Goose, also known as the Puna Goose. Both birds have physical similarities such as being small to medium-sized, with striking blue-winged feathers.

However, the Andean Goose has a white head and neck, a pink bill, and orange-yellow legs, while the Blue-winged Goose has a dark greyish-black head and neck, a dark bill, and dark legs.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The Blue-winged Goose has a patchy distribution due to its restricted habitat requirements. In the past, this bird was more widespread, occurring in regions outside of its current range.

However, habitat destruction and hunting have caused a decline in its population and fragmentation of its distribution. The Blue-winged Goose is listed as Near Threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List.

It is subjected to habitat loss and degradation due to wetland conversion, gold mining activities, and the construction of hydroelectric dams. Additionally, the bird is subjected to hunting, especially in areas where it’s not legally protected.

This has led to its population decline and local extinctions in several regions.


The Blue-winged Goose is a striking bird species that has undergone changes in its population and distribution due to human activities. Understanding its systematics history, geographic variation, subspecies, and related species, illuminates the unique characteristics of this bird.

Although currently categorized as Near Threatened, ensuring the protection of its habitat, conservation measures, and accurate data collection can mitigate the threat posed to it and allow the Blue-winged Goose to continue thriving in its limited natural habitat.


The Blue-winged Goose occupies a relatively narrow geographical range of the high Andes in the west of Bolivia, southern Peru, and northern Chile. Within this range, the bird prefers freshwater sites such as lagoons, marshes, and wetlands, which provide sufficient food and shelter.

In particular, they are drawn to wetland areas that include lagoons, slow-moving streams, and freshwater marshes that have fringing vegetation. These areas, which are typically located at high altitudes from 3500m up to 5200m, are usually rich in sedges, rushes, and patches of scrubby vegetation that provide the birds with the cover they need while they feed.

While nesting, the Blue-winged Goose also prefers remote marshes and swamps, as these sites are typically further away from predators.

Movements and Migration

The Blue-winged Goose is a resident bird in the Andean areas where it breeds, with little or no population dispersion. However, when the breeding season ends around October, the birds go through a period of dispersal in search of food.

The dispersal period coincides with the wet season, which is an ideal time when water bodies are typically full of food sources. The Blue-winged Goose is not known for its long-distance movements, but it does undertake some seasonal migration.

For example, the birds that reside in Peru at high elevations descend to lower altitudes during the breeding season. Some birds move to coastal desert regions and semi-arid shrublands in the south of Peru and Chile, where they find suitable food and habitats.

At the end of the breeding season, the birds return to their high elevation Andean habitats. While there is little information concerning the migratory pathways of the Blue-winged Goose, some birds that breed in the mountains of Bolivia have been seen wintering in the wetlands in Argentina.

This journey spans over a thousand kilometers of traveling, and it can take up to two months as the birds move in stages. The migration of the Blue-winged Goose is also affected by various environmental changes, including El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

Due to this oscillation, the bird’s movement is relatively unpredictable. For example, during the years when ENSO occurs, the local habitat experiences irregular weather patterns and droughts, which affect the availability of food and lead to changes in the bird’s migration timing and patterns.

To conclude, the Blue-winged Goose is a relatively sedentary bird that does not make long-distance movements. The birds move only to find food and to respond to the changing conditions of their breeding or wintering habitats.

Therefore, it is crucial to protect the birds and their habitats so that they can continue to thrive all year round. Through the protection of their habitats, robust conservation policies, and accurate monitoring of their movements and migration, the Blue-winged Goose can remain a rich and vibrant part of the avian world.

Diet and Foraging


The Blue-winged Goose is a herbivorous bird that feeds primarily on plant material. It enjoys grazing on marshy vegetation, foraging for seeds, shoots, and roots.

The bird is primarily active during the day and feeds in short bouts throughout the day to obtain the required nutrients necessary to meet its energy needs


Blue-winged Geese prefer fresh plant material, with sedges, rushes, and aquatic plants comprising a large part of their diet. They tend to feed on and around water bodies where they can have available access to food.

The Blue-winged Goose has a unique mechanism for feeding, having the ability to sieve muddy water through its bill and extract small aquatic invertebrates and seeds, among other food items. This feeding mechanism helps the bird obtain nutrients that would be otherwise inaccessible.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

The Blue-winged Goose is a high altitude bird and has specialized mechanisms to regulate metabolic rate and body temperature. These adaptations allow the bird to extract energy from its food effectively while maintaining stable body temperature that is essential for their survival.

They also have a unique adaptation that involves countercurrent exchange in their legs, which helps maintain consistent body temperature despite the cold environment.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


The Blue-winged Goose has low-pitched vocalizations characterized by a honking sound that is usually heard during the breeding season. During this time, the birds become more vocal as they establish territories, search for mate partners, and defend their young.

The calls are conducted mainly by males and serve to attract females or to warn off potential rivals from their territory. The call is a low and rather mournful “haunk haunk haunk” that can be heard from different parts of the wetlands in which the birds reside.

It is a rather shy bird that reserves its call when threatened or agitated. Moreover, the Blue-winged Goose also has specialized vocalization to contact their partners within their habitat.

This communication helps to coordinate their movements for better feeding and raising of their chicks. Such communication is an essential part of their social behavior and plays a significant role in their breeding ecology.


The Blue-winged Goose is a captivating bird that exhibits unique feeding and vocalizing behaviors. Its feeding habits demonstrate its evolutionarily adaptive mechanism to obtain nutrients necessary to maintain their metabolic rate in their high elevation habitat.

Such adaptation is necessary for the bird’s survival in a potentially competitive environment that has limited food sources. Vocalization is another interesting aspect of this bird, with its low-pitched honking sound being a significant part of its mating behaviors.

Protecting this bird’s habitat is essential to maintaining the integrity of these unique behaviors that add to the wonder of the avian world.



The Blue-winged Goose is a relatively slow-moving bird, with a waddling gait when walking on the ground. When in flight, it beats its wings in a steady and measured manner, with the wings generating a whistling or humming sound.

While in the water, the bird’s feet act as paddles, with their webbed toes spread out when swimming, which provides the bird with greater surface area for propulsion.


The Blue-winged Goose spends time in its daily routine preening its feathers, which helps to maintain their insulating properties. They use their beaks to distribute a waxy secretion that waterproofs their feathers.

The bird also bathes frequently, which helps to clean its feathers and remove dirt and parasites.

Agonistic Behavior

The Blue-winged Goose is territorial, and it defends its breeding and feeding territories aggressively. When challenged, the bird will spread its wings and lift its neck while vocalizing and posturing to intimidate its rival.

However, in extreme cases, physical confrontation may occur, typically involving pecking and striking with bill and wings.

Sexual Behavior

The Blue-winged Goose breeds during the wet season when their habitats have ample water resources. During the breeding season, the males will perform courtship displays that involve head nodding, wing-flapping, and approaches to the female.

The male will also guard mating territory and develop intraspecific competition, limiting the number of females a male has access to.


The Blue-winged Goose breeds during the wet season, typically from November to February, when their habitat is abundant in food. The average clutch size is three to five eggs, usually laid in a ground nest constructed from grasses and sedges in remote marshes and wetlands.

Both parents take turns incubating the eggs, which takes around 30 days. The young Blue-winged Geese can swim and feed soon after hatching and can fly within seven to eight weeks of hatching.

Demography and Populations

The Blue-winged Goose has a limited geographical range, stemming from the decrease of its historical and suitable habitat. The bird’s population size is relatively unknown, and no accurate estimates have been provided.

However, the bird is listed in the IUCN red list as Near Threatened. This categorization highlights its vulnerability due to habitat destruction, hunting, and climate change.

The Blue-winged Goose is legally protected in some parts of its range, and research and conservation actions on their breeding habitats are necessary to ensure the bird’s survival.


The Blue-winged Goose is a fascinating bird, with unique behaviors that add to its charm in the wild. From its adaptive locomotion tactics to its aggressive intraspecific behaviors during breeding, the bird is an embodiment of the strength and resilience of nature.

The bird’s behaviors during breeding and self-maintenance highlight its evolutionary adaptations, while their vulnerability to habitat loss and hunting underscores the importance of keeping an eye on their populations. Through continued research and conservation efforts, it is possible to protect and preserve the Blue-winged Goose and its unique behaviors for future generations.

The Blue-winged Goose is a remarkable bird that has adapted to living in the high Andes Mountains in South America. Our article has covered several aspects of this bird, from its physical characteristics and behaviors to its movements and populations.

Understanding its systematics history, movements and migration, vocalization, and reproductive behaviors help us appreciate the unique features of this species better. Additionally, through exploring the bird’s diet and foraging, self-maintenance, and population demographics, we have highlighted the importance of preserving its habitat and implementing conservation measures.

Ultimately, by learning about the Blue-winged Goose and how it survived in the wild, we can help ensure these birds continue to live and thrive in their natural habitats while enjoying their beauty and unique behaviors.

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