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The Resilient American Goldfinch: Migration Diet Behavior & More

The Black-throated Mango is a hummingbird species that is known for its iridescent feathers and vibrant colors. This elegant species not only has a beautiful appearance, but also a fascinating life history.

In this article, we will dive into the identification, plumages, and molts of the Black-throated Mango.



Identification: The Black-throated Mango can be identified by its overall length of 11 cm and weight of 5.1 g. Their plumage is predominantly green with a black throat patch and a glittering orange to red bill.

They also feature a metallic green cap and a bright, iridescent tail. The sexes are identical in appearance with the male having a slightly longer bill.

Similar Species: Its closest relative, the Green Mango, has an overall green plumage and lacks the black throat patch of the Black-throated Mango. The Bee Hummingbird also resembles the Black-throated Mango but is much smaller, with males having a distinct violet cap and red throat while female Bee Hummingbirds dominate a greenish-olive color.


The Black-throated Mango has five distinct plumages. The juvenile plumage has buffy bordered feathers on its body and a brownish-orange base color.

The first male plumage, which emerges after the juvenile plumage, is similar to the adult female plumage but has a bright bottle-green throat patch. Second-year males adopt an intermediate plumage with a mix of male and female features, transitioning to the third-year adult male plumage which is almost identical to the adult female plumage except for the ebony black throat patch.

Adult females have the same plumage throughout life.


The Black-throated Mango is known to have an incomplete molt (partial replacement of feathers) at least twice per year. The pre-basic molt is where birds replace their wing and body feathers.

While the pre-alternate molt in males is where they replace their throat and crown feathers; it also coincides with the production of display feathers upon which depends the male’s chances of mating.


The Black-throated Mango has a remarkable life cycle with distinctive plumages and molts. From their juveniles’ buffy feathers to the adult male’s iridescent gleam, the Black-throated Mango is a magnificent sight to behold.

The identification points listed above will help you spot this species easily, especially with its unique black-throated feature. Thus, you will have a better understanding of the Black-throated Mango’s life cycle, which is essential for appreciating its beauty and ardent lifestyle.

Systematics History

The American Goldfinch, also known as the Eastern Goldfinch, was originally classified in the family Fringillidae. However, in recent years it has been reclassified to the family Carduelinae.

This classification change was made due to genetic studies that revealed the American Goldfinch’s close relationship to other members of the Carduelinae family.

Geographic Variation

The American Goldfinch is widespread across North America, with a breeding range that stretches from southern Canada to the southern United States. These birds are also known to inhabit Mexico and some regions of Central America.

As a result, American Goldfinches exhibit geographic variation across their range.


There are two main subspecies of the American Goldfinch: Carduelis tristis tristis, which is found in the eastern part of North America, and Carduelis tristis pallidus, which inhabits the western half of North America. Both subspecies share similar physical characteristics, but differ slightly in plumage.

The eastern subspecies have brighter yellow coloring on their underparts and have larger black patches on their foreheads, whereas the western subspecies has a paler yellow underside and smaller black forehead patches.

Related Species

The American Goldfinch is closely related to several other species of finches also within the Carduelinae family. They include the Pine Siskin, the Lesser Goldfinch, and the European Goldfinch.

These birds share similar physical features, including a conical beak for seed cracking and a distinctive finch-like shape.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The American Goldfinch has an interesting history of changing distribution patterns. In the late 1800s, the species was introduced to Hawaii and became established on several of the islands.

However, it was later eradicated due to concerns about the impact introduced species could have on the native flora and fauna. The American Goldfinch also experienced range expansion and contraction in response to the development and agriculture across North America.

In the late 1800s, they were rapidly spreading across Canada and the northeastern United States, as farmers cleared forests and created new fields for agriculture. However, by the early 1900s, American Goldfinches began to retreat from the southern portions of their range, including central Texas and the Gulf Coast states, as these regions were developed for agriculture and residential purposes.

Another historical change in distribution occurred during the mid-20th century, when American Goldfinches were believed to have expanded their range westward. This hypothesis was likely due to an increase in observations of the species in the western United States.

However, genetic studies revealed that these observations were not due to a range expansion, but rather a change in migratory behavior. Specifically, scientists discovered that some populations of American Goldfinches in western North America had adopted a year-round residency instead of migrating.

In conclusion, the American Goldfinch is a fascinating species with an interesting history of a classification shift, geographic variation, and a changing distribution. Understanding their different subspecies and relationship to other finch species helps us gain a better understanding of the larger avian lineage.

Overall, the American Goldfinch is a resilient bird that has adapted to a changing landscape brought about by human impact.


American Goldfinches are year-round residents in most parts of their breeding range. They are found in open country areas such as fields, meadows, orchards, and parks.

During the breeding season, they prefer to live in open deciduous and mixed woodlands that provide a diverse range of fruit and seed sources. The birds also thrive in suburban areas, where bird feeders contribute to their diet of seeds.

American Goldfinches also prefer to build their nests in deeper forests, hiding them away in deciduous and mixed forests. Overall, American Goldfinches are highly adaptable birds that thrive in different environments as long as food sources are abundantly available.

Movements and Migration

The American Goldfinch is a migratory bird, traveling in large flocks during the fall and spring migration periods. At these times, the birds move in a southward and northward direction, respectively, seeking to breed and forage in suitable habitats.

The specific breeding period for American Goldfinches varies depending on the location. Populations in the southern part of the breeding range may begin breeding as early as March, while those in the far north will not start until late June or early July.

During the winter months, American Goldfinches have a partial migration. These birds will move in response to the availability of food sources, primarily seeds.

As their main source of food is greatly diminished in the colder months, they will travel in flocks in search of food sources. These migrations can vary, with some birds remaining in one area while others continue to travel further south.

Additionally, American Goldfinches from the northern regions have been known to move further south than those from the southern regions.

One unique aspect of the American Goldfinch’s migration is that they undergo a molting of feathers, including their bright yellow plumage.

During the winter months, their plumage will change to a duller and more muted shade of olive that helps them blend in better with their winter surroundings. In spring, they molt to regain their bright yellow feathers, just in time for the breeding season.


The American Goldfinch is a highly adaptable species that is able to thrive in a range of habitats throughout North America. They are resident birds throughout the majority of their breeding range, but undertake seasonal migration in the fall and spring, typically in search of suitable breeding and foraging habitat.

During the winter months, their movements are more localized and determined by the availability of food sources. Their fascinating annual molt process further adds to their exceptional qualities.

Overall, a deeper understanding of the American Goldfinch’s movements and habitat requirements can help us better protect these fascinating birds in the wild.

Diet and Foraging

Feeding: American Goldfinches are seed-eating birds with a preference for the seeds of wildflowers, grasses, and trees such as thistle, aster, and sunflower. They have a small but sturdy conical-shaped bill, which is ideal for cracking open tough seeds.

American Goldfinches primarily feed on the ground or from the heads of flowers during the breeding season. However, they are also known for their acrobatic feeding behavior, hanging upside-down from branches to reach food sources and eating in mid-air.

Diet: Their diet is highly dependent on seasonality and location. American Goldfinches have been observed as the only known bird capable of extracting seeds of certain invasive plant species, such as Queen Annes lace, garlic mustard, and purple loosestrife.

This has led to a decreased spread of these species which contributes to the conservation of the environment.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation: American Goldfinches’ small size and high metabolic rate puts them at risk of fluctuations in temperature.

To maintain their body temperature, these birds have a unique adaptation in their metabolism. They have a highly variable metabolic rate that increases during winter nights and can decrease by up to 50% during the day.

This feature helps them conserve energy, fuel their thermogenic processes, and protect them from extreme climates.

Sounds and Vocal


Vocalization: American Goldfinches are known for their beautiful and melodic songs. The birds sing in a series of warbling notes, with their song often compared to the sound of a bouncing ball, “per-chic-o-ree.” Male American Goldfinches are the primary singers, especially during the breeding season when they use their songs to establish territories and attract mates.

Females also sing, but their songs are usually chattering sounds.

In addition to songs, American Goldfinches use calls for communication.

One of the most common is their potato chip call, which is a series of high-pitched, sharp, and clear notes they use for communication while moving in flocks or during a flight. They also utilize a hee hee hee call which displays aggression and used during their territorial disputes over food source and breeding sites.


American Goldfinches are fascinating birds, with a unique foraging behavior and attractive vocalizations. Their diet and feeding methods provide them a diverse range of food sources, including adaptability to weeds and invasive plants that threaten the environment.

Their metabolic system enables them to engage in thermoregulation and respond to fluctuations in both temperature and food availability. Finally, their beautiful songs and calls make them popular among birders and nature enthusiasts.

Understanding their diet and vocal patterns is essential to gain more knowledge about their behavior and improve our conversation towards them in the wild.


Locomotion: American Goldfinches have a distinct and energetic flight pattern. They show an undulating, flowing flight pattern that is accompanied by a distinct “bouncy” movement, which sets them apart from other bird species.

Their flight pattern during the breeding season is used to attract mates with their energy seen as linked to reproductive vigor.

Self-Maintenance: American Goldfinches have a strict grooming schedule and keep their feathers in immaculate condition.

These birds will engage in a behavior called preening in which they use their beaks to smooth and clean their feathers. Additionally, American Goldfinches have a unique habit of rubbing themselves with flowers and leaves, which may help clean and maintain their feathers, as well as protect them from parasites.

They also bathe by splashing and rolling around in shallow bodies of water, an activity typically seen in the afternoon when sunlight is more intense. Agonistic

Behavior: American Goldfinches are aggressive birds when it comes to defending their territory and food sources.

They engage in agonistic behaviors such as bill snapping, flight chasing, and chasing rivals on the ground to intimidate other males from their territory and to retain their claim as the “alpha” male.


Behavior: During the breeding season, American Goldfinches’ energetic behavior is paired with their mating displays.

Male American Goldfinches will sing and perform flight displays, including erratic and elaborate flight patterns, to attract a female. Once a female arrives, the male will engage in courtship feeding, in which he brings food itemssuch as dandelion and thistleto the female as a sign of his affection.


American Goldfinches are seasonal breeders that are typically monogamous and, furthermore, exhibit cooperative breeding (two or more males in the territory during the breeding season). The breeding season for American Goldfinches depends on the location and climate, but it usually occurs from late May to mid-July.

American Goldfinches are cavity nesters, building their nests primarily from soft plant materials such as thistle down, milkweed floss, and grass. They prefer to build their nests on the forks of shrubs or trees, often in a concealed location to reduce the chances of predation.

Both males and females work together to build the nest, but the female completes most of the construction while the male brings material.

American Goldfinches have been known to lay clutches of up to six eggs, which they incubate for about 12 to 14 days.

After hatching, the young are fed a diet of insects, including caterpillars, until they mature enough to begin eating seeds. The young fledge from the nest approximately two weeks after hatching and will stay with their parents until they become independent.

Demography and Populations

The American Goldfinch is a relatively stable and common bird species, with population estimates at around 42 million individuals. However, populations vary regionally based on habitat and climate changes, along with changes to their food sources that affect their breeding success.

Given their protected status under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, there is no significant population decline. American Goldfinches are also popular among bird enthusiasts and have been the subject of numerous citizen-science projects focused on tracking their migration patterns, breeding patterns, and population trends.

Overall, understanding the behavior, breeding, and demographic patterns of American Goldfinches is critical to the conservation of this beautiful bird species and its ecosystems. Conservation efforts, including habitat preservation and preventing the spread of invasive species, will continue to benefit the American Goldfinch for years to come.

In conclusion, this article has discussed various aspects of the American Goldfinch bird, including its distinctive physical features, geographic variation, migration patterns, diet, vocalizations, breeding, and demography. Understanding these factors is crucial to protect and conserve this resilient species in the wild.

The American Goldfinch is a remarkable example of avian adaptation, with unique physical and behavioral patterns that contribute to its ability to endure a wide range of environmental challenges. Efforts to preserve the American Goldfinch’s habitat and support the species’ ecological needs can contribute to the conservation of not only this bird but also the entire ecosystem in which it resides.

With continued protection and conservation measures in place, we can ensure that future generations of birds and people can appreciate the beauty and resilience of the American Goldfinch.

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