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Saving the Alagoas Curassow: Discovering the Behaviors and Secrets of the World’s Most Endangered Bird

The Alagoas Curassow, scientifically known as Mitu mitu, is a stunning bird species that is native to the Atlantic coastal forests of northeastern Brazil. Unfortunately, this species is also one of the most endangered birds in the world, with only around 50 individuals left in the wild.

In this article, we will explore the identification, plumages, and molts of the Alagoas Curassow and learn about the species’ conservation status.


The Alagoas Curassow is a large bird, measuring up to around 42 inches in length and weighing up to around 6 pounds. It has a distinctive black crest on its head and neck, which contrasts with its dark brown to black body and wings.

The species also has a bright blue patch of skin around its eyes and a reddish-orange beak. Field


In the field, the Alagoas Curassow can be identified by its characteristic calls, which include a loud, grunting “kar-ru”, as well as a series of low, guttural hoots.

The birds are generally solitary or live in small groups of up to around ten individuals, and they are typically found in dense forests near rivers or streams.

Similar Species

The Alagoas Curassow is often mistaken for its close relative, the Razor-billed Curassow. While the two species look quite similar, the Alagoas Curassow can be distinguished by its blue eye patch, whereas the Razor-billed Curassow has a yellow eye patch.


The Alagoas Curassow has three main plumages: juvenile, female, and male. Juvenile plumage:

The juvenile plumage is primarily black and brown, with a pale white stripe running down the bird’s forehead and chest.

Female plumage:

The female plumage is similar to the juvenile plumage, but the bird has a distinct, pale yellow patch on its chest. Male plumage:

The male plumage is the most striking of the three.

The bird has a glossy black body and wings, with a bright blue patch around its eyes and a large, white patch on its belly. The male also has a distinctive crest of black feathers on its head and neck.


The Alagoas Curassow undergoes two molts each year – the breeding and non-breeding molt.

Breeding molt:

During the breeding molt, the male’s head and neck feathers become more pronounced and elongated, and the bird’s coloration becomes more vibrant overall. Non-breeding molt:

During the non-breeding molt, the bird’s feathers become duller, and the crest on the male’s head and neck shrinks in size.

Conservation Status

Sadly, the Alagoas Curassow is currently listed as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The main threats to the species include habitat destruction due to logging, agriculture, and urbanization, as well as hunting and capture for the pet trade.

Conservation efforts are currently underway to help protect and conserve the remaining populations of Alagoas Curassows, including habitat restoration and reforestation projects, captive breeding programs, and education and outreach initiatives.

Closing Thoughts

The Alagoas Curassow is a truly unique and magnificent bird that is unfortunately on the brink of extinction. By learning more about this species, we can raise awareness about the threats it faces and work to protect and conserve these beautiful creatures for future generations to enjoy.

Systematics History

The history of the systematics of the Alagoas Curassow species has been a subject of extensive research over the last few decades. This bird species, scientifically known as Mitu mitu, is a member of the family Cracidae and the order Galliformes.

Greater knowledge on its geographic variation, subspecies, and related species is crucial to understanding its evolution and ecology while facilitating proper conservation strategies.

Geographic Variation

The Mitu mitu species has shown substantial variation in morphological traits across its geographic range. The bird’s physical features, such as length, weight, plumage, and beak size, vary among populations in distinct regions.

For instance, a study found that individuals residing in the coastal forests of northeastern Brazil had longer, heavier beaks compared to populations dwelling in the interior forests, whose beak size was comparatively smaller.


Mitu mitu has three recognized subspecies, including M. m.

mitu, M. m.

septentrionalis, and M. m.

juruanus. The M.

m. mitu subspecies inhabits the coastal region of northeastern Brazil, from Bahia to Alagoas states.

In comparison, M. m.

septentrionalis occurs in the northern regions of the species’ range, including Piau, Maranho, and Cear states. Lastly, M.

m. juruanus occurs in some small areas in western Brazil, such as the Jurua River basin.

These subspecies vary in their physical features, genetic, and ecological characteristics, indicating that these subspecies have been isolated for thousands of years and are morphologically distinct.

Related Species

The Alagoas Curassow belongs to the Cracidae family, a highly diverse group of birds commonly found in the Neotropical region. The family includes 10 genera and about 59 species, and most of them have similar behavioural and ecological characteristics.

Some of the related species to the Alagoas Curassow include the Razor-billed Curassow (Mitu tuberosum), the Wattled Curassow (Crax globulosa) and the Blue-billed Curassow (Crax alberti). These species have similar physical characteristics and live in similar habitats as the Alagoas Curassow, but they differ from each other slightly in their morphology and vocalizations.

Historical Changes to Distribution

Historically, the Alagoas Curassow was distributed over a vast area of Atlantic coastal forest in the northeastern region of Brazil. However, over time, the species faced a tremendous decline in population size and distribution resulting from habitat destruction and fragmentation, hunting, and capture for the pet trade.

The western Atlantic forest biome in Brazil was once vast, occupying 1.3 million km. Due to deforestation and urbanization, this biome has been reduced to just 140,000 km, resulting in severe fragmentation.

Consequently, the species has suffered substantial distributional changes and population fluctuations over the last few decades. In the 19th century, the bird species’ range extended into southern Bahia, Esprito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and So Paulo states.

However, in recent decades, these populations have disappeared, and the species’ distribution has been restricted to smaller, fragmented habitats in the Alagoas, Sergipe, and Pernambuco states. In the 20th century, the species was also eliminated from the coastal region of Bahia because it was hunted extensively, while its habitat was destroyed to create pasturelands.

The same happened in the northeastern region’s scrub forests, where the species was extirpated from some areas due to habitat destruction and overhunting.


The systematics and historical changes in the geographical distribution of the Alagoas Curassow illustrate the importance of understanding a species evolution, ecology, and characteristics to develop and implement effective conservation strategies. Due to the species’ critical endangered status, this knowledge is essential to guide ongoing conservation programs aimed at protecting the species and its habitat.

Responding to habitat fragmentation, hunting, and other anthropogenic threats demands a collective effort to educate the public, drive conservation policies, and conduct more research, with the aim of protecting the remaining populations.


The Alagoas Curassow is a bird species that is adapted to living in the dense, humid forests of northeastern Brazil. The species prefers lowland forests, although some populations exist in higher altitude forests.

They can be found in both primary and secondary forest habitats, and they require dense vegetation and an abundance of fruit trees, which provide their necessary food sources. The loss of habitat is one of the major threats to the Alagoas Curassow.

The Atlantic Forest region was once one of the most extensive forests in Brazil, covering an area of approximately 1.3 million square kilometers. However, due to deforestation, fires, and urbanization, the forest has dwindled to about 140,000 square kilometers.

This has resulted in significant fragmentation and habitat loss, which has severely impacted the Alagoas Curassow and other resident species in the region.

Movements and Migration

The Alagoas Curassow is a sedentary species, which means they typically stay in one place year-round, and they do not undertake any regular seasonal migrations. However, there are some reports suggesting that the species may move to new areas in search of food and water during long periods of drought or other adverse environmental conditions.

In some cases, young Alagoas Curassows may disperse from their natal territories in search of new breeding territories. This is relatively uncommon and may be less frequent due to habitat fragmentation and the decline of the species’ population.

The species is not known to undertake any long-distance movements, but they do have a limited home range, which they defend against other individuals. Male Alagoas Curassows are territorial and may engage in displays and vocalizations to defend their territories from intruders.

Conservation of

Habitat and Movements

Given the habitat requirements of the Alagoas Curassow, conservation efforts aimed at protecting and restoring forest habitat are vital for the species’ long-term survival. Unfortunately, the Atlantic Forest region has suffered extensive habitat loss due to human activities such as deforestation, logging, and agriculture.

Various conservation programs have been implemented to protect the remaining habitat and develop strategies for restoring degraded areas.

Habitat restoration and reforestation projects can help to create more significant areas of suitable habitat for the Alagoas Curassow and other native species.

The implementation of protected areas, such as national parks, reserved forests, and ecological stations, is crucial for the preservation of the Atlantic Forest. These areas provide vital habitat for the Alagoas Curassow and help to reduce the impact of human activities in the region.

In addition, it is essential to mitigate some of the threats to the Alagoas Curassow habitat, such as hunting, poaching, or illegal wildlife trade. This can be done through education and outreach programs, increased law enforcement, and the promotion of sustainable land-use practices.

Lastly, given the Alagoas Curassow’s limited movements and migratory ability, it is necessary to protect the remaining populations in their existing and future ranges. This can be achieved through creating and enforcing conservation agreements and promoting the creation of core habitat areas.

Diet and Foraging


The Alagoas Curassow is a mainly frugivorous bird species, which means that they primarily feed on fruits, although they may also consume some insects, leaves, and flowers. They are diurnal birds and are most active during the morning and early afternoon.

The species spends most of its time foraging in the forest’s understory or along the edges of forests, searching for suitable fruit trees.


The Alagoas Curassow has a varied diet that consists of a wide range of fruits. Their favourite foods include the fruits of the Cecropia, Ficus, and Palicourea trees.

These fruits are nutrient-rich and contain essential vitamins and minerals necessary for the bird’s health. Additionally, the species may feed on some insects, leaves, and flowers, but these are not the primary component of their diet.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

The Alagoas Curassow is a mesothermic bird species, which means that they exhibit a lower metabolic rate and body temperature than their avian counterparts. This is partly due to their relatively small body size and also because they are primarily frugivorous, which means that they have a less strenuous metabolic requirement for digestion of plant matter than carnivorous birds.

These features may be an evolutionary adaptation to the bird species’ habitat of dense, humid forests, which stays relatively cool throughout the year.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


The Alagoas Curassow is known for its distinctive and loud vocalizations, which include a variety of grunts, hoots, and cackles. They use these calls to maintain contact with other members of their family group, signal danger or distress, and to establish their territorial boundaries.

During display, male Alagoas Curassows exhibit a range of vocalization behaviours, including calling and vocalizing song-like sounds while performing elaborate courtship displays. Male birds may also perform drumming displays by striking their wings against their bodies, producing a distinctive drumming sound that is audible at a considerable distance.

Interestingly, studies suggest that the physical attributes of the Alagoas Curassow, such as the bird’s neck and respiratory system, have evolved to produce their unique vocalizations. The birds have a unique adaptation that allows them to produce lower-frequency sounds with greater amplitude, possibly to communicate more effectively in their dense forest habitat.

Conservation and Vocalizations

The Alagoas Curassow’s vocalizations play a vital role in the species’ conservation strategies. These loud and distinctive calls are often the easiest way to detect the presence of Alagoas Curassow populations in the wild.

Additionally, vocal monitoring techniques can be used to study the species’ distribution, density, and behaviour, which can be critical for developing conservation plans. Given the critical status of the Alagoas Curassow, conservation efforts must focus on protecting the species’ remaining habitat, monitoring population numbers and range, and protecting the birds from habitat destruction and hunting.

Aside from the biological characteristics of the bird, their vocal behaviour has also shown that by keeping them within protected areas the sightings and detection of any possible poaching are alerted and prevented.

Vocal monitoring can provide valuable information about population trends, habitat use, and breeding success, and can also help identify critical habitat areas for protection and to reduce stress in species under high anthropogenic pressure.

Additionally, increased research in the vocalization behaviour of the Alagoas Curassow could provide insight into the species’ evolutionary history, behaviour, and communication in addition to the species’ conservation strategies.



The Alagoas Curassow is a terrestrial bird species and is adapted to moving on the ground. They are relatively strong runners and can move quickly and agile through underbrush and dense forest habitats.

The birds typically move around by walking, although they can also fly briefly to escape predators or to move to a new area of forest.


The Alagoas Curassow has a variety of self-maintenance behaviours designed to keep them healthy and free from disease. They typically preen their feathers frequently to clean themselves and prevent the buildup of dirt and parasites.

Additionally, they often dust-bathe in loose soil or sand to remove excess oils or dirt from their feathers.

Agonistic Behavior

The Alagoas Curassow can show aggressive behaviour towards one another, particularly during the breeding season. Males often engage in aggressive behaviour, including vocalizations, displays, and physical attacks, to establish territories and court females.

Females also exhibit aggressive behaviours during the breeding season, sometimes attacking males or other females that threaten their nesting sites or offspring.

Sexual Behavior

The Alagoas Curassow has a polygynous breeding system in which a male may mate with multiple females. Males engage in elaborate courtship displays, including displays of vocalizations, drumming, posturing, and feather displays, to attract females and defend their territories.

Females will lay multiple eggs in nests concealed in dense vegetation on the forest floor, and males will not assist in brooding or incubating the eggs.


The breeding season of the Alagoas Curassow typically occurs during the rainy season, from August to December, although exact timing may vary depending on local conditions. Males will establish territories and engage in aggressive displays to protect their mate and offspring during this season.

The Alagoas Curassow typically lays 2-3 eggs in a concealed nest placed in thick vegetation on the forest floor. The eggs are pale yellow or buff-coloured with lightly speckled spots.

The female is responsible for incubating the eggs for around 30 days, after which the chicks hatch. Both parents will care for the chicks, feeding them insects and small fruits, and protecting them from predators.

Demography and Populations

The Alagoas Curassow is one of the most endangered bird species in the world, with only an estimated 50 individuals remaining in the wild. The species has suffered a significant population decline and range contraction over the past few decades due to habitat destruction, hunting, and poaching.

Conservation efforts aimed at protecting the remaining populations have focused on habitat restoration and reforestation, captive breeding programs, and education and outreach initiatives. Captive breeding programs allow for the production of young that can be reintroduced into the wild, while habitat restoration can help create suitable habitats for the species.

Understanding the Alagoas Curassow’s behaviour, movements, and population dynamics is crucial to developing effective conservation strategies. It is essential to continue monitoring the population sizes and trends, studying the behaviour of the birds and the factors that affect their ecology.

With these understandings and appropriate protection plans, it is hoped that this unique bird species will recover to a healthy and sustainable population in the future.

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