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Safeguarding the Buru Racquet-tail Parrot: Behavior Ecology & Conservation Challenges

The Buru Racquet-tail, also known as the Prioniturus mada, is a beautiful parrot species that is endemic to the forests of Indonesia. It is a medium-sized parrot with distinct plumage and tail feathers, which gives it a unique appearance compared to other parrots.

This article aims to explore the characteristics of the Buru Racquet-tail, including its field identification, plumages, and molts. Identification:

Field Identification:

The Buru Racquet-tail is a medium-sized parrot with an average length of 28 cm.

It is mostly green, with a yellow patch on the forehead, red on the crown, and blue feathers on its wings, which can be seen when it is in flight. It has a distinct red beak, which sets it apart from other parrot species.

Similar Species:

The Buru Racquet-tail can easily be confused with other Prioniturus species, such as the Blue-crowned Racquet-tail. The key distinguishing factor is the presence of red on the crown of the Buru Racquet-tail, which is absent in the Blue-crowned Racquet-tail.


The Buru Racquet-tail goes through various plumages throughout its life cycle. Juveniles have a duller feather appearance compared to adults.

They have an olive-green plumage, with brown markings on their wings and tail feathers. As they mature, their plumage becomes brighter and more vibrant, with a deeper shade of green.

Adults have a blue-brown shade on their throat, breast, and abdomen. One of the most significant features of the Buru Racquet-tail is its long, distinct tail feathers that form a racquet shape at the tip.


The Buru Racquet-tail goes through two molts during its life cycle – a pre-basic molt and pre-alternate molt. The pre-basic molt typically occurs between April and October, where the bird sheds its feathers and replaces them with new ones to help prepare for the breeding season.

The pre-alternate molt occurs between January and March, which allows the bird to grow colorful breeding plumage to attract mates. Conclusion:

In conclusion, the Buru Racquet-tail is a unique and visually striking parrot species endemic to the Indonesian forests.

Its distinct plumage and tail feathers enable easy identification and make it a popular species among bird enthusiasts and researchers. Understanding its characteristics, including field identification, plumages, and molts, is crucial to spot and protect this beautiful bird species.

The Systematics History, Geographic Variations, Subspecies, Related Species, and Historical Changes to Distribution of a given bird species help us understand the evolution of the species and its relation to other bird species. This article explores these aspects of the Buru Racquet-tail, a parrot species endemic to Indonesia.

Systematics History:

The Buru Racquet-tail belongs to the Psittacidae family of parrots, which includes over 350 species. The Psittacidae family is divided into three groups: the true parrots, the New World parrots, and the cockatoos.

The Buru Racquet-tail falls under the true parrots group, which includes species like the Amazons, African Grey Parrots, and Keas. The taxonomy of Buru Racquet-tail has undergone several changes over the years.

It was first described in 1858 by naturalist John Gould and was initially considered a subspecies of the Blue-crowned Racquet-tail. However, in 1997, the Buru Racquet-tail was reclassified as a distinct species due to genetic and morphological differences.

Geographic Variation:

The Buru Racquet-tail has noticeable geographic variations in its plumage and vocalizations. The populations found on the southern part of the island of Buru have a brighter blue crown than the populations found on the northern part of the island.

The southern populations also have more extensive blue markings on their tail feathers than the northern populations. Subspecies:

There are no recognized subspecies of the Buru Racquet-tail.

However, the populations on different parts of the Buru island exhibit geographic variations that are significant enough to suggest potential subspecies differentiation. Further studies are required to confirm if these variations are sufficient to classify the populations as subspecies.

Related Species:

The Buru Racquet-tail has several species that are closely related to it within the Prioniturus genus. These include the Blue-crowned Racquet-tail, the Mindanao Racquet-tail, and the Yellow-breasted Racquet-tail.

These species share many characteristics with the Buru Racquet-tail, such as the racquet-shaped tail feathers and similar vocalizations. Historical Changes to Distribution:

The Buru Racquet-tail has a limited distribution range, as it is endemic to the island of Buru in the Maluku Islands of Indonesia.

The historical changes to the distribution of the Buru Racquet-tail are not well documented. However, it is likely that the bird’s habitat and population have undergone significant changes due to deforestation, hunting, and human-induced habitat destruction.

In the past, Buru island was heavily populated, and much of its forest was cleared for agriculture. The Buru Racquet-tails’ natural habitat lowland and hill rainforests were especially affected due to this human activity.

The forests that constitute the bird’s natural habitat are also critical to water catchment areas and soil conservation. The deforestation of these areas resulted in soil erosion and water runoff, which caused further damage to the bird’s natural habitat.

Today, due to conservation efforts, the Buru Racquet-tail population is said to be stable. However, it is still considered a vulnerable species, and its conservation status depends on the success of conservation efforts aimed at protecting its habitat.


The Buru Racquet-tail is a beautiful parrot species endemic to Indonesia. Its distinction from other parrot species, geographic variations, and relationship with closely related species in the Prioniturus genus provide valuable insights into its evolution.

Despite its limited distribution range, the Buru Racquet-tail faces threats due to human activities. The conservation efforts aimed at protecting the bird’s natural habitat are critical to its survival.

Through continued efforts, bird enthusiasts and researchers can help protect this unique species and ensure its existence for future generations. The Buru Racquet-tail, an endemic parrot species in Indonesia, prefers a specific habitat and has different movements and migration patterns.

Understanding these aspects can give insights into the conservation needs of this species. This article explores the habitat, movements, and migration patterns of the Buru Racquet-tail.


The Buru Racquet-tail is known to inhabit lowland and hill rainforests, specifically in the Buru Island of Indonesia. This species’ habitat is at risk due to human-induced activities such as logging and conversion of forests to agricultural land.

Additionally, many of the remaining forests in the Buru Island are in a fragmented state. Fragmentation of forest can affect not only the Buru Racquet-tail but also other endemic species that reside in the remaining habitats.

Furthermore, the Buru Racquet-tail’s habitat preference makes it vulnerable to natural hazards such as storms, floods, and droughts. Hence, habitat restoration, reforestation, and forest protection would go a long way in conserving this parrot species.


The Buru Racquet-tail is known to make short and burst-like movements within its habitat. While this species has been observed perching on exposed branches within the forest canopy, it is also seen gliding from tree to tree, rarely moving long distances.

In addition, this species is known to forage a great extent in fruit and seed-bearing trees, such as fig and nutmeg, within its habitat. This kind of behavior may lead to conspicuous aggregations of individuals and, thus, increased risks for hunting and trapping.

Therefore, a better understanding of these movement patterns can contribute to the conservation and protection of the Buru Racquet-tail. Migration:

The Buru Racquet-tail’s movement pattern within its habitat suggests that it is non-migratory.

This species’ movement has only been observed within the Buru Island, where they are endemic. However, the movements of the Buru Racquet-tail are often associated with food availability, and it is known to move to areas of abundance.

While this species may appear non-migratory, the actual movements of the individuals have yet to be studied in greater detail. Radio telemetry studies, for instance, could provide valuable insights into this species’ specific movements and habitat requirements, including the identification of new habitat areas.


In conclusion, the Buru Racquet-tail’s habitat preference is identified as lowland and hill rainforests. However, habitat loss and fragmentation threaten its existence.

With its foraging strategy focused on specific plant species, habitat protection measures that promote a rich forest ecosystem would also indirectly benefit this species. The Buru Racquet-tail makes short movements rarely moving long distances, and according to current knowledge, it is not a migratory species.

However, more detailed studies of its movements and migration patterns are necessary to aid its conservation, management, and protection. The conservation of the Buru Racquet-tail’s habitat and its protection against human-induced threats remains the best conservation strategy for this unique species.

Understanding the feeding habits and vocal behaviors of a given bird species provides valuable information on its ecology and helps develop conservation strategies. This article explores the diet and foraging of the Buru Racquet-tail, as well as their vocal behavior.

Diet and Foraging:


The Buru Racquet-tail is a frugivorous bird species. Frugivorous birds survive primarily on fruits, and it is no different for the Buru Racquet-tail.

When feeding, individuals of the species move from tree to tree, picking fruits using their beak and feet. They prefer feeding on fruits from fig and nutmeg trees within their habitat.


Other than fruits, the Buru Racquet-tail has been seen feeding on leaves and nuts. These dietary practices can help determine the impact of the Buru Racquet-tail on their habitat and ecosystem.

For example, frugivorous birds can play a vital role in seed dispersal and regeneration of plants in the ecosystem. Metabolism and Temperature Regulation:

Due to its frugivorous diet, the Buru Racquet-tail may have a slow metabolism compared to other bird species that feed on insects and small animals.

A slow metabolism can help conserve energy and enable the bird to fly for extended periods. Furthermore, the Buru Racquet-tail’s habitat is humid and warm throughout the year, and they may use metabolism and other physiological mechanisms to regulate their body temperature.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior:


The Buru Racquet-tail is known for its unique vocalizations. The species produces screams and high-pitched calls, especially in the morning and evening hours.

Additionally, during the breeding season, they produce softer, more melodious calls. The Buru Racquet-tail has been observed to vocalize more when in large flocks.

It is believed that vocalization helps with communication, bonding, and establishing territories. Their vocalization has been attributed to their frugivorous diet as fruits typically attract more activities in the surrounding environment.

Evidence shows that frugivorous birds tend to vocalize more in places with high food abundance. Understanding the vocalizations of Buru Racquet-tail can help researchers monitor the bird’s behavior, population size, and, most importantly, develop conservation techniques.


In conclusion, the Buru Racquet-tail is a frugivorous bird species, which feeds mainly on fruits from fig and nutmeg trees. The frugivorous diet of the bird enables it to regulate its metabolism and temperature, allowing for energy conservation.

The species vocalizes differently, depending on its behavioral state and environmental cues. Knowing its vocalizations can provide insights into its behavior, population size, distribution, and conservation, hence the need to study this aspect to develop appropriate conservation strategies.

The Buru Racquet-tail exhibits various behaviors, such as locomotion, self-maintenance, agonistic behavior, sexual behavior, breeding, and population dynamics. Understanding these aspects of the species provides valuable information needed for the conservation and management of this unique bird species.

This article explores the various behaviors, breeding, and demography of the Buru Racquet-tail. Behavior:


The Buru Racquet-tail is known for making short and burst-like movements within its habitat, i.e., it is a short-range flier.

The species rarely moves long distances, but it has been observed gliding from tree to tree within its natural habitat. This behavior is a reflection of the bird’s unique habitat and dietary preferences.


The Buru Racquet-tail engages in elaborate self-maintenance behaviors. The bird regularly preens its feathers to keep them in good condition.

Preening involves the removal of old or disheveled feathers and the application of waterproof oil to keep them healthy and waterproof. Additionally, the species takes dust baths to keep the plumage in pristine condition.

Agonistic Behavior:

Male Buru Racquet-tails have been observed to exhibit agonistic behavior during breeding season. This behavior includes shoving, biting, and screeching at intruding males.

This behavior, coupled with vocalizations, helps establish territories and attract mates during breeding season. Sexual Behavior:

Male Buru Racquet-tails display conspicuous courtship behaviors, such as vocalizing, fluffing of neck feathers, and tilting of heads, to attract mates.

Additionally, during the breeding season, males will perch near suitable nest sites and vocalize to announce their availability and territories to females. Breeding:

The Buru Racquet-tail’s breeding season typically runs from February to August.

During this period, males engage in courtship displays, attract mates, and attempt to establish territories. The female burrows its way into cavities located in trees.

They build their nests inside the holes and use leaves and bark to line the nests. The female typically lays one, rarely two, eggs per clutch.

Demography and Populations:

Population estimates for the Buru Racquet-tail are uncertain. This is largely due to the species’ forest-dependent habitat, which is relatively inaccessible and challenging to survey accurately.

However, the species is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, indicating a population decline due to human-induced threats such as habitat loss and fragmentation. Furthermore, the Buru Racquet-tail’s population dynamics and demographic parameters, such as age structure, survivorship, and reproduction, are also relatively little known.

Long-term monitoring programs, population surveys, and demographic studies are essential for obtaining this information. This information can help determine population trends and inform conservation measures, such as the identification of priority areas for protection and monitoring of population trends.


In conclusion, the Buru Racquet-tail exhibits distinctive behaviors such as short-range flying, elaborate self-maintenance, agonistic behavior, and sexual behavior during the breeding season. Despite the challenges involved in surveying the species’ population, the Buru Racquet-tail is vulnerable and requires conservation due to habitat loss and fragmentation.

Furthermore, the species’ breeding patterns and demographic parameters need further study to better design conservation strategies that can ensure the persistence of the species in its habitat. In conclusion, this article has explored various aspects of the Buru Racquet-tail, an endemic parrot species in Indonesia.

The article has delved into the species’ taxonomy, geographic variations, foraging habits, vocal behaviors, breeding patterns, and population dynamics. The Buru Racquet-tail faces various conservation challenges, such as habitat loss and fragmentation, which threaten the survival of this unique bird species.

Understanding the behavior and ecology of this species through research and conservation measures is critical for developing and implementing effective strategies for its protection. The findings presented in this article highlight the importance of conservation efforts aimed at protecting the Buru Racquet-tail and its habitat to ensure its existence for generations to come.

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