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Gone Forever: The Extinction of the Colorful Carolina Parakeet

The Carolina Parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis, was once a familiar sight in the Southeastern United States. With its green and yellow plumage, striking red head and bill, and raucous calls, it was a highly visible and charismatic bird.

Unfortunately, due to a combination of habitat destruction, hunting for the pet trade, and disease, the species went extinct in the early 20th century. In this article, we will explore the identification of this iconic bird, including its field marks, similar species, and plumage patterns.


Field Identification

Carolina Parakeets were unique in their appearance and behavior, making them relatively easy to identify in the field. The male and female were similar in size and coloration, with bright green plumage covering most of the body, except for the wings, which were blue.

The head and bill were a striking bright red, with a patch of yellow above the bill. The eyes were dark brown, and the legs and feet were gray.

One of the most notable features of the Carolina Parakeet was its raucous call. It was a high-pitched and nasal “kee-ah” or “queer!” that was heard frequently during the day.

Adults often flew in small to large flocks, creating a striking visual display as they moved through the trees. In flight, their blue wings were a prominent field mark.

Similar Species

While the Carolina Parakeet was unique in appearance, it could be confused with several other species, particularly from a distance. Some species that could be mistaken for a Carolina Parakeet included:

– Green Parakeet: This species is still found in parts of the southern United States and is similar in size and coloration to the Carolina Parakeet.

However, its head and bill are black, not red, and it has a larger patch of yellow over the bill. – Lorikeet: While this species is not found in the United States, it is still a popular pet bird in many households.

Lorikeets are similarly colored to the Carolina Parakeet, but their head and bill are sometimes orange instead of red.


Carolina Parakeets underwent two distinct molts during the year. The pre-basic molt occurred in late summer or early fall and resulted in a new set of feathers for the upcoming breeding season.

This molt typically occurred after the breeding season, and the birds would then spend the fall and winter months in their winter range. The pre-alternate molt occurred in late winter or early spring as the birds returned to their breeding range.

During this molt, the birds replaced their feathers with a bright new set that would be used for breeding displays and courtship. The male’s red head and bill were particularly striking during this time, making them easily distinguishable from females.


While the Carolina Parakeet may be extinct, its memory lives on through scientific study and research. Understanding the identification and plumage patterns of this species can help us appreciate the unique qualities that it brought to the world.

By sharing this information with others, we can continue to promote the importance of conservation and the preservation of endangered species.

Systematics History

The Carolina Parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis, is a bird species that belongs to the family of the Psittacidae. This family also includes parrots, macaws, and conures.

The Carolina Parakeet was first described in 1758 by Linnaeus, who gave it the scientific name Psittacus carolinensis. Since then, there have been many changes to its classification and taxonomy, as well as attempts to identify geographic variation, subspecies, and its relationships with other psittacids.

Geographic Variation

Geographic variation refers to the differences in physical traits and characteristics that exist among populations of the same species living in different geographical regions. There is much debate among researchers over whether or not the Carolina Parakeet showed geographic variation.

Some suggest that there were differences in the size, color, and bill shape of birds from different regions. Others argue that there was insufficient evidence to support geographic variation.


The classification of subspecies is used to divide the populations of a species based on geographical differences in physical characteristics and behaviors. While there is no consensus among taxonomists, evidence suggests that several subspecies of the Carolina Parakeet could have existed.

Some of the proposed subspecies include:

– Conuropsis carolinensis carolinensis: the nominate subspecies, found in the central and south-eastern United States. – Conuropsis carolinensis ludovicianus: found in the southern region of the Mississippi River, from southern Illinois to Louisiana.

– Conuropsis carolinensis floridana: found in southern Florida.

Related Species

The Carolina Parakeet is part of the genus Conuropsis, which includes only two other species: the Thick-billed Parrot and the Hispaniolan Parakeet. The Thick-billed Parrot is found in Mexico and the southwestern United States.

It is a large, green parrot with a thick, curved bill and a distinctive call. The Hispaniolan Parakeet is native to the Dominican Republic and Haiti.

It is a small, green parrot with a red belly and a white eye-ring.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The Carolina Parakeet was once widespread across the southeastern United States. Its range is thought to have extended from southern New York to Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.

However, due to habitat loss, hunting for the pet trade, and disease, their range gradually diminished. During the 1800s, the Carolina Parakeet was heavily hunted for its colorful feathers, which were often used to decorate women’s hats.

This led to a significant decline in populations. The birds also suffered from habitat loss due to deforestation and the clearing of land for agriculture.

As human populations grew, so did the demand for land and resources, and the Carolina Parakeet’s habitat shrank. Finally, disease played a significant role in the decline of the Carolina Parakeet.

Avian diseases such as avian malaria and birdpox, brought to America by European settlers, ravaged populations of native birds that had no natural immunity. The Carolina Parakeet was particularly sensitive, and diseases caused significant fatalities.

As a result of these factors, the Carolina Parakeet was declared extinct in 1939. The last known wild bird was harvested in Florida in 1904.

The last captive bird, a female named “Lady Jane,” died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1918.


The Carolina Parakeet was a unique and charismatic bird species that once inhabited the southeastern United States. Its range gradually diminished due to hunting, habitat loss, and disease until it became extinct in the early 20th century.

While there is much debate over its taxonomy, different subspecies, and its relationships to other psittacids, there is no doubt over its importance as a historical figure in the natural heritage of North America. By studying its systematics and historical changes, we can better appreciate its unique qualities and the importance of conservation efforts to preserve other endangered species.


The Carolina Parakeet inhabited a variety of habitats across the southeastern United States, including forests, swamps, and wetlands. They were commonly found in deciduous forests, particularly those containing tall, mature trees with cavities that could be used for nesting.

The birds relied on a diverse range of plant and tree species for food, including seeds, nuts, fruits, and berries. They were known to feed on the flowers of trees such as the tulip poplar, as well as on the buds of maple trees.

In the winter, they would move to areas with dense evergreen trees such as pines, hemlocks, and spruces, where they could find both shelter and food.

Movements and Migration

The Carolina Parakeet was a resident bird that did not exhibit regular or large-scale migrations. However, the species underwent a seasonal movement between their breeding and wintering ranges.

In the summer months, Carolina Parakeets would stay in their breeding range, nesting and raising young. In preparation for the winter, they would move to their wintering range in late summer or early fall.

The birds moved to areas with milder climates during the winter, where they would find food and shelter. They were known to move further south when the temperatures dropped, but there was no systematic or predictable pattern to their movements.

While individual birds or small groups would occasionally stray from their typical range, the Carolina Parakeet was not a species known for long-distance movements or dispersal. Its primary ranges were in the southeastern United States, from southern New York south to Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.

One behavior that was sometimes mistaken for migration was that of nomadism. Nomadism occurs when birds or animals exhibit movements in response to changes in food availability.

Carolina Parakeets were known to move in search of food during periods of drought or when their preferred food sources were scarce. This behavior could be observed in small groups or individual birds moving short distances in search of food.

The Carolina Parakeet was not known to form large flocks during either breeding or wintering seasons. Instead, they were typically found in groups of 10 to 20 birds, often consisting of family groups or individuals roosting in communal trees.

These small groups allowed for more efficient foraging and reduced predation risk.


The Carolina Parakeet was a resident bird species that did not migrate long distances. Instead, it underwent seasonal movements between its breeding and wintering ranges.

The species inhabited a variety of habitats across the southeastern United States, including forests, swamps, and wetlands, and relied on a diverse range of plant and tree species for food. Understanding the movements and habitat requirements of the Carolina Parakeet is critical to understanding the factors that contributed to its decline and eventual extinction.

Ultimately, the species’ habitat loss, hunting pressure, and disease, led to its decline in populations, and its once-common range became a distant memory.

Diet and Foraging


The Carolina Parakeet was a primarily frugivorous species, meaning that its diet consisted mainly of fruits and berries. They primarily fed on the fruit of trees, such as hackberry, wild cherry, mulberry, fig, and the seeds of grasses and other plants.

They also occasionally fed on insects, including caterpillars and beetles, particularly while they were raising their young. Interestingly, they did not frequently consume nuts, despite their strong beaks.


The Carolina Parakeet had a highly specialized diet and relied on a diverse range of plant and tree species for food. They showed preferences for certain fruits and seeds, with a particular preference for the seeds and fruits of maple, elm, and hackberry trees.

The seeds of these trees are high in fat content, which likely provided the birds with the energy they required to fuel their high metabolic rates.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

The Carolina Parakeet had a high metabolic rate, which helped to keep its body temperature warm, even in cold weather. They were able to maintain a constant body temperature of around 105F (40C), even in winter.

To support this high metabolic rate and keep their bodies warm, they had a specialized digestive system that allowed for the rapid digestion of food. They were also able to eat large quantities of fruit and seeds, given their specialized gastrointestinal system.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


The Carolina Parakeet was a social species and frequently made a variety of calls to communicate with other members of its flock. They had a distinctive high-pitched and nasal call, which was often heard during the day.

The call was a sharp “kee-ah” or “queer!” sound, which was easily distinguishable from other bird calls. The birds also used a range of calls as part of their social behavior, including alarm calls, which warned of danger, and contact calls, which helped to maintain communication within the flock.

During the breeding season, males could also be heard making a soft, low-pitched call to attract a mate. Interestingly, the Carolina Parakeet was a species that was relatively easy to train to mimic human speech.

As a result, they were frequently kept as pets and were popular with bird trainers and collectors. Unfortunately, captive birds did not reproduce well in captivity, which led to many birds being taken from the wild to meet demand.

This was one factor that contributed to the species’s eventual decline and extinction.


The Carolina Parakeet had a specialized diet that consisted predominantly of fruit and berries. They also occasionally consumed insects, particularly while raising their young.

The species had a highly specialized digestive system that allowed for the rapid digestion of food. They had high metabolic rates that allowed for the maintenance of a constant body temperature, even in harsh winter conditions.

The Carolina Parakeet was a social species that frequently made a range of calls to communicate with other members of its flock. Their distinctive high-pitched and nasal call, which was often heard during the day, was easily distinguishable from other bird calls.

Understanding the species’ feeding habits and vocal behavior is critical to understanding its place in the ecosystem and the factors that contributed to its decline and eventual extinction.



The Carolina Parakeet was a perching bird that was adapted to moving through forested areas. Their primary mode of locomotion was flight, which they used for both longer-distance travel and quick bursts of movement as they moved through the trees.

In flight, they were agile and highly maneuverable, able to turn abruptly and move quickly as they dodged branches and other obstacles. When not flying, they perched on tree branches or clung to the sides of trees using their strong feet and claws.

Self Maintenance

The Carolina Parakeet was a social bird that frequently engaged in self-maintenance behaviors, such as preening and grooming one another. Preening involved cleaning and rearranging feathers, which was important for maintaining their flight ability and insulation against the elements.

Grooming involved removing parasites from one another’s feathers, which helped to keep the birds healthy.

Agonistic Behavior

Carolina Parakeets, like most social bird species, also engaged in agonistic behavior when necessary. Agonistic behavior can include a wide range of interactions, from displays of aggression to postural changes that communicate dominance or submission.

For Carolina Parakeets, these interactions most frequently occurred during the breeding season or when flocks were feeding or roosting together.

Sexual Behavior

Carolina Parakeets were a monogamous species, and pairs would typically form prior to the breeding season and stay together for life. Males would engage in courtship behaviors, including singing and courtship displays, to attract a mate.

After pairs were formed, they would work together to find a suitable nesting location and build a nest. Females typically laid 2-4 eggs per clutch, and both parents would take turns incubating the eggs until they hatched.

After hatching, chicks were fed by both parents, who would regurgitate food into the mouths of their young.


The breeding season for the Carolina Parakeet typically occurred in the spring months, with nesting activities commencing in March or April. Pairs would work together to find a suitable nesting location, which was generally in a tree cavity.

The birds did not excavate their own nests but instead relied on natural cavities left by woodpeckers or other birds, as well as in hollow trees. Occasionally, they would also use man-made objects such as fence posts and nest boxes.

After the nesting location was chosen, the birds would construct a nest of wood chips and other nesting materials in the bottom of the cavity. The female would lay 2-4 eggs, which were white, and roughly 1.2 inches (3 cm) in size.

Both parents would take turns incubating the eggs, which typically hatched after 21-25 days. After hatching, both parents would feed the young, which fledged from the nest after around 30 days.

Demography and Populations

The Carolina Parakeet was once one of the most common birds in its range, with populations of 1 to 2 million individuals at one point. Unfortunately, the species underwent a rapid decline during the 1800s and early 1900s, primarily due to hunting for the pet trade and habitat destruction.

By the early 20th century, the species had disappeared from much of its historical range and was in decline across the remainder of its range. The last known sighting of the bird occurred in Florida in 1920, and the last captive bird, Lady Jane, died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1918.

Research suggests that a combination of factors contributed to the decline of the Carolina Parakeet, including human disturbance, habitat fragmentation, disease, and overhunting. The loss of mature forest habitats, in particular, proved disastrous for the birds, as they depended on the hollows of trees for nesting.

Today, Carolina Parakeets are extinct, and efforts to bring back the species through reintroduction or breeding programs would be challenging due to the many factors contributing to their decline. The loss of Carolina Parakeet populations is a reminder of the critical role that habitat conservation and restoration play in the preservation of endangered species.

The Carolina Parakeet was once a highly visible and charismatic bird that inhabited

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