Bird O'clock

From Song to Fledgling: A Fascinating Look at the Behaviors of the Northern Mockingbird

As nature lovers and bird enthusiasts, there’s nothing better than watching a penguin waddling on the ice. Among the 18 species of penguins, the Erect-crested penguin (Eudyptes sclateri) stands out with its unique appearance and behavior.

In this article, we will learn more about this cute seabird, from its identification to plumage and molts.


The Erect-crested penguin is a medium-sized penguin, measuring about 50 cm in height and 3.4 kg in weight. Its most recognizable feature is the yellow eyebrow-like plumes that arch over the eyes, forming a V-shape on the forehead.

These erect crests give the bird its name. The plumage on the head and upperparts is black, while the underparts are white, with a black stripe across the chest.

The bill of the Erect-crested penguin is long, narrow, and black. Its legs and webbed feet are pink, and the eyes are red.

Unlike other penguin species, the male and female Erect-crested penguin look alike. Field


In their natural habitat, the Erect-crested penguins are often found in large colonies on the rocky coastal areas of the sub-Antarctic islands, such as Antipodes Island, Bounty Islands, and Campbell Island.

During the breeding season, they often gather in groups of up to 200 pairs, exhibiting unique social behaviors.

Similar Species

The Erect-crested penguin is similar in appearance to the Royal penguin, which also has a similar yellow-orange crest. The key distinguishing feature between the two species is the bill.

The Royal penguin has a larger and more robust bill than the Erect-crested penguin.


The plumage of the Erect-crested penguin changes as it grows and ages. Juvenile birds have a duller plumage than adults, with a brownish-black head and a white chinstrap that connects to the breast.

As they mature, their plumage becomes darker and more uniform in color.


Like all birds, penguins undergo a molt, where they shed old feathers and grow new ones. The molt process is essential to maintain the bird’s health, as it replaces damaged or worn-out feathers that no longer provide insulation and waterproofing.

The Erect-crested penguin has a pre-basic molt and a pre-alternate molt. During the pre-basic molt, which usually occurs from February to April, the bird sheds all its feathers, becoming unable to swim or feed for several weeks.

During the pre-alternate molt, which occurs in late October or early November, the bird sheds only some of the feathers on its head and neck, resulting in a distinctly different appearance from the rest of the year. In conclusion, the Erect-crested penguin is a fascinating species of penguin that stands out with its unique appearance and behavior.

From its yellow crests to its pink legs and webbed feet, this bird is easy to identify. Its plumage changes as it matures, and it undergoes a molt process to replace old feathers.

Understanding these characteristics and behaviors can help us appreciate and protect this magnificent bird. The history of the systematic classification of birds has been a fascinating journey since the 18th century.

One such bird that has undergone changes in its classification is the Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii). This article will delve into the systematics history of the species, focusing on geographic variation, subspecies, related species, and historical changes to distribution.

Systematics History

The Red-tailed Black Cockatoo was first described by John Latham in 1790, who named it Banksian Cockatoo after the English botanist Sir Joseph Banks, who collected the first specimen. Later, in 1836, the species was reclassified as Calyptorhynchus banksii by Thomas Horsfield, who separated it from the White-tailed Black Cockatoo.

Geographic Variation

The Red-tailed Black Cockatoo has a broad distribution range across a considerable part of Australia, including Tasmania. They are commonly found in woodland, savanna, and scrubland habitats.

The species has undergone extensive geographic variation over time, resulting in the recognition of four subspecies.


The four recognized subspecies of the Red-tailed Black Cockatoo are as follows:

1. Calyptorhynchus banksii banksii: This subspecies is found in eastern Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia.

2. Calyptorhynchus banksii graptogyne: This subspecies is found in southwestern Western Australia.

3. Calyptorhynchus banksii macrorhynchus: This subspecies is found in the Northern Territory and Western Australia.

4. Calyptorhynchus banksii naso: This subspecies is found in the northwestern Kimberley region of Western Australia.

Related Species

The Red-tailed Black Cockatoo belongs to the genus Calyptorhynchus and is closely related to other black cockatoos, including the yellow-tailed black cockatoo, glossy black cockatoo, and Baudin’s black cockatoo. The birds share similar physical characteristics, including black feathers, pink cheek patches, and featherless cream or grey eye rings.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The Red-tailed Black Cockatoo has undergone significant changes to its distribution over time. In the past, the species was widespread across the southern and eastern parts of Australia.

However, in recent years, there has been a reduction in the range of the species, primarily due to habitat loss and fragmentation. The natural range of the species has also been impacted by human-related factors such as deforestation and the introduction of invasive species.

In Western Australia, the Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is faced with habitat fragmentation, as the birds are unable to move freely across the urbanized landscape. Another contributing factor to the historical changes in distribution is the species’ migratory behavior.

The birds are known to undertake seasonal movements in search of food and breeding mates. However, these movements are sometimes disrupted by human activities such as land clearance and development, leading to a decline in the species’ population.

In conclusion, the history of the systematic classification of the Red-tailed Black Cockatoo has undergone significant changes over time. The species has undergone significant geographic variation, leading to the recognition of four subspecies.

The birds belong to the genus Calyptorhynchus and are closely related to other black cockatoos. The historical changes to distribution are primarily due to habitat loss and fragmentation, as well as the species’ migratory behavior.

Understanding these changes is crucial in helping to conserve the species and its habitats. The Lilac-Breasted Roller (Coracias caudata) is a stunning bird species found in many sub-Saharan countries, including Kenya, Tanzania, and South Africa.

This article will examine the habitat of the Lilac-Breasted Roller, its movements and migration, and the factors that affect its behavior.


The Lilac-Breasted Roller is commonly found in woodland savannas, open woodlands, and scattered trees. The bird prefers drier habitats with lower rainfall and often perches on tree branches and termite mounds.

They are also known to occupy savanna grasslands and open agricultural land, provided there are adequate perching sites. In Tanzania and Kenya, where the bird is commonly found, it has been recorded in acacia and miombo woodlands, where small trees and shrubs intersperse the savanna grassland.

In addition to natural habitats, the species is known to visit human settlements, including parks and gardens.

Movements and Migration

The Lilac-Breasted Roller is a non-migratory bird that exhibits some movements dependent upon the availability of food and water. The species is known to undertake short-range movements in search of seasonal food sources and water.

During times of drought, the birds move towards the areas with better water sources. The birds are also known to leave their breeding territories after the end of the breeding season in search of new territory and food sources.

This seasonal migration is usually confined to short distances within the species’ natural range. Other factors that affect the movements and migration of the Lilac-Breasted Roller include the weather and availability of food.

The birds are known to be opportunistic feeders, relying on insects, small mammals, reptiles, and fruit for their diet. During seasons with a high abundance of prey, the birds may stay in one place for longer periods.

Breeding and Mating

The Lilac-Breasted Roller breeds in savanna woodlands and savanna grasslands, constructing a nest in tree cavities or other enclosed spaces. The breeding season is usually from September to March, with the birds breeding monogamously.

During the breeding season, the male bird performs aerial displays to attract a mate. The males exhibit several behaviors, including calling, singing, and acrobatic displays.

The birds perform several stunt-like dives complex rolling, tumbling, and twisting movements.

Factors affecting Distribution

The Lilac-Breasted Roller’s distribution is affected by various factors, such as habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, and hunting. Human activities such as deforestation, agriculture, and urbanization have significantly altered the bird’s habitat.

The construction of roads and other infrastructure often leads to habitat fragmentation, which reduces the range and mobility of the bird and other wildlife. Climate change also affects the bird’s distribution, with changing rainfall patterns and temperatures leading to significant vegetation changes in savanna habitats.

The availability of food and water for the bird is also impacted by these changes, making it difficult for them to adapt. Hunting for the bird’s feathers and use in traditional medicine also contributes to the decline in its distribution.

In some areas, the species is hunted for food, further threatening the bird’s population. In conclusion, the Lilac-Breasted Roller is a fascinating bird species that prefers drier habitats with adequate perching sites.

The species is non-migratory but moves within short distances in search of seasonal food sources and water.

Breeding and mating occur during the breeding season, with the male bird performing aerial displays to attract a mate.

Human activities such as deforestation and hunting continue to impact the bird’s distribution, making conservation efforts necessary for the species’ survival. The Rufous-bellied Tit (Periparus rubidiventris) is a small passerine bird found in the Himalayas, southern China, Myanmar, and northern Vietnam.

This article will explore the Rufous-bellied Tit’s diet and foraging behaviors, metabolism and temperature regulation, and sounds and vocal behavior.

Diet and Foraging


The Rufous-bellied Tit feeds on insects, spiders, and their larvae. The bird searches for food in the understory and lower levels of the forest canopy, where it forages through the foliage.


The Rufous-bellied Tit’s diet may also include fruits, seeds, and nectar. During winter when insects are scarce, the bird supplements its diet with small seeds and fruits.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

The Rufous-bellied Tit has a high metabolic rate, which helps it maintain body temperature in colder environments. The bird can adjust its metabolic rate based on the external temperature, which allows it to conserve energy.

The species has several behavioral adaptations that help with thermoregulation. The Rufous-bellied Tit fluffs its feathers into a more significant volume during the winter months to increase its insulation.

The bird also huddles with other individuals, sharing body heat during cold weather.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


The Rufous-bellied Tit is known for its melodious and distinct song. The bird’s vocalization includes a series of sharp whistles, repeated two to three times, followed by a descending trill.

The male bird is the primary singer, during courtship and mating, with the song serving as an indicator of reproductive fitness. The Rufous-bellied Tit communicates using various vocalizations for different situations, including identifying themselves, warning others of predators, and signaling alarm.

The birds are known to use a high-pitched call in response to a predator.

Breeding and Mating Behavior

The Rufous-bellied Tit usually breeds between April and August, coinciding with the monsoon season. The bird’s courtship behavior includes vocalization by the male bird, with the female perched nearby observing.

After mating, the female Rufous-bellied Tit lays a clutch of five to six eggs in the nest, which is a cup-shaped structure made of twigs, moss, and dry leaves. Parental duties are shared between the male and female Rufous-bellied Tit, with both birds taking turns incubating the eggs.

The eggs hatch after 15-17 days, and the young birds fledge and leave the nest after 22-26 days.

Environmental Factors

The Rufous-bellied Tit’s range is primarily affected by habitat destruction due to human activities such as deforestation and logging. The bird is generally found in subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, at altitudes ranging from 800 to 4,000 meters above sea level.

Conservation Efforts

Conservation efforts for the Rufous-bellied Tit include habitat preservation and land management practices that balance the needs of wildlife with the needs of humans. Establishing protected areas, where the bird’s habitat is preserved, is a crucial step in ensuring the species’ continued survival.

Education programs about the Rufous-bellied Tit’s conservation status can help raise public awareness to protect this beautiful species. In conclusion, the Rufous-bellied Tit is a small passerine bird with a high metabolic rate, adapted to maintain its body temperature in cold environments.

The bird’s diet includes insects and other invertebrates. The Rufous-bellied Tit’s distinct song is used in courtship and mating behavior, communicating with other birds, and signaling alarm.

Human activities such as logging and deforestation threaten the bird’s habitat, making conservation efforts necessary for its continued survival. The Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is a medium-sized songbird found across North America, known for its remarkable vocalizations.

This article will examine the Northern Mockingbird’s behavior, including its locomotion, self-maintenance, agonistic behavior, and sexual behavior. We will also explore its breeding, demography, and populations.



The Northern Mockingbird moves mostly on the ground, using quick, hopping strides. The bird also runs, walks, and moves through short flights among shrubs and tree branches.

It spreads its wings and tail feathers during flight to display their white patches.


The Northern Mockingbird has several mechanisms for grooming itself to promote hygiene and plumage maintenance. The bird frequently preens its feathers using its long beak, removing dirt and debris while maintaining its insulation and waterproofing.

Agonistic Behavior

The Northern Mockingbird exhibits aggressive behavior towards other birds and intruders in its territory. The bird attacks and chases away other birds and animals that it perceives as threats.

During displays of aggression, the bird spreads its wings, fans its tail feathers, and puffs out its feathers.

Sexual Behavior

The Northern Mockingbird has a unique courtship display, where the male bird perches on a tree limb or other high point and sings a complex song, with mimicked sounds of other bird species. The display is a way to attract a mate and establish a pair bond.


The Northern Mockingbird’s breeding season is from late March to early August. The bird builds a bulky nest out of twigs, grass, and other materials, usually in a dense shrub or tree.

The nest is cup-shaped and lined with fine materials such as plant fibers or hair. After mating, the female Northern Mockingbird lays three to five eggs that are incubated by both parents for around 13-15 days.

The young birds hatch and are cared for by both parents, with the fledgling period varying between 10-15 days.

Demography and Populations

The Northern Mockingbird’s population trend is relatively stable, with a current estimate of around 32 million individuals. The bird is widespread across North America, ranging from southern Canada to Mexico, excluding arctic tundras.

The species is a permanent resident in the southern and western parts of the United States, but its range fluctuates seasonally in the northeast.

Environmental Factors

The Northern Mockingbird’s habitat is primarily terrestrial, ranging from grasslands, savannas, scrublands, open woodlands, and urban areas. Environmental factors that impact the Northern Mockingbird’s populations include habitat loss, climate change, and predation.

Conservation Efforts

Conservation efforts for the Northern Mockingbird include habitat protection and management practices that balance the needs of wildlife with human needs. The bird is protected under the U.S. Migratory Bird Treaty Act, which prohibits the harming of the species without a permit.

In conclusion, the Northern Mockingbird is a remarkable bird with unique vocalizations and aggressive territorial behavior. The bird has a stable population trend, with a widespread range across North America.

The Northern Mockingbird’s behavior includes self-maintenance, agonistic behavior, and sexual behavior. The bird’s breeding season is from late March to early August, with both parents caring for the young.

Understanding these behaviors and environmental factors is crucial in managing and conserving this fascinating species.

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