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Discovering the Blue-headed Racquet-tail: Plumages Habits and Conservation Efforts

The entire article aims to provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of the identification, plumages, and similar species of the Blue-headed Racquet-tail bird species.The Blue-headed Racquet-tail, scientifically known as Prioniturus platenae, is a medium-sized parrot species native to the Philippines. These birds are known for their striking colors, with a predominantly green body and a distinctive blue head.

In this article, we will explore the identification and different plumages of the Blue-headed Racquet-tail, as well as some similar species and their habitat.


Field Identification

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail is around 29-30 cm in length and weighs approximately 148-177 g. They have a predominantly green body with a blue crown on the top of their head and a red patch on their forehead.

They have a moderately sized black beak, and their wings and tails are blue. The underparts of their tails show a cluster of pale blue feathers, which resembles a racquet.

They also have a white ring around their eyes, and their feet are gray.

Similar Species

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail has some similar species, such as the Blue-naped Parrot, Blue-crowned Racquet-tail, and Mindanao Racquet-tail. The Blue-naped Parrot has a blue nape and a green body, and their tails have yellow tips.

The Blue-crowned Racquet-tail has a wider blue crown than the Blue-headed Racquet-tail, and their tails have wider blue tips. The Mindanao Racquet-tail has blue on its whole head and a reddish-brown body.


The Blue-headed Racquet-tail has two different plumages, the adult and juvenile. The Adult plumage is characterized by a mostly green body, a blue crown, red forehead, blue wings, and a blue tail with a racquet.

Its eyes have a bright red pupil and a white ring around it. The juvenile plumage is duller compared to adult plumage.

They have greenish-yellowish feathers on their head and body with a bluish tinge on their wings and tails.


The molting process of the Blue-headed Racquet-tail occurs annually or biannually, which depends on their species and habits. During the molting process, the old feathers gradually fall out, and new feathers grow in their place.

This process usually occurs during the non-breeding season.

Habitat and Distribution

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail is commonly found in forested areas with an elevation of up to 1000 meters. They can be seen in primary and secondary forests, as well as in plantations and gardens.

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail is endemic to the Philippines, specifically in the islands of Palawan, Sulu, and Mindanao.


In conclusion, the Blue-headed Racquet-tail is a striking bird species known for their blue head and racquet-like tail. They can be found mainly in the Philippines and can be identified through their distinctive markings on their body.

They also have two different plumages, the adult and juvenile, which can be seen during the molt process. Understanding these unique characteristics of the Blue-headed Racquet-tail will give everyone a deeper appreciation for these beautiful creatures and their habitats.

Systematics History

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail, Prioniturus platenae, was first described by John Whitehead, a British naturalist in 1895. Its genus name, Prioniturus, comes from the Greek words prion, meaning saw, and oura, meaning tail.

This refers to the feather shape on the birds tail, resembling a saw.

Geographic Variation

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail species has a high degree of geographic variation where distinct different populations occur across the Philippines. These distinctions manifest themselves in a marked variation in the size and color of bird specimens collected from different localities.

Species’ geographic variations are primarily influenced by environmental factors such as local climatic conditions, food sources, and terrain.


There are four subspecies of the Blue-headed Racquet-tail that have been identified based on geographic location and physical characteristics. The identified subspecies are;


Prioniturus platenae platenae: This subspecies is found in northern Palawan, where it is the only population of Blue-headed Racquet-tails. It is characterized by its large size, long bill, and broad blue crown.

2. Prioniturus platenae merrilli: This subspecies is found on Balabac Island, at the southernmost tip of the Palawan archipelago.

It is distinguished from the northern subspecies by its smaller size, shorter bill, and more restricted blue crown.


Prioniturus platenae leucotis: This subspecies is widespread in the Visayan Islands, stretching from the Sibuyan Sea in the north to the Sulu Sea in the south and over to Bohol. It has a larger bill and a wider blue crown compared to other subspecies.

4. Prioniturus platenae mindorensis: This subspecies is restricted to Mindoro Island in the central Philippines.

Its physical characteristics are similar to the northern subspecies, with a broad blue crown and a long bill.

Related Species

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail belongs to the family Psittacidae, which consists of more than 372 parrot species worldwide. The Blue-Headed Racquet-tail is most closely related to two other species in the genus Prioniturus: the Mindanao Racquet-tail Prioniturus waterstradti and the Blue-winged Racquet-tail Prioniturus verticalis.

These species geographic ranges also occur in the Philippines.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The distribution of the Blue-headed Racquet-tail bird species has undergone significant changes over time due to several factors such as deforestation, hunting, and the pet trade. Deforestation has led to habitat degradation, habitat loss, and fragmentation, which have greatly affected the species distribution.

As a result, the Blue-headed Racquet-tail species is currently classified as near threatened by the IUCN Red List. Hunting is another detrimental factor to the Blue-headed Racquet-tails distribution.

They are hunted for their meat, feathers, as well as for their beauty and rarity. The pet trade has also led to a decrease in the number of Blue-headed Racquet-tails in the wild.

Many birds are illegally captured and sold as pets, which has resulted in a significant decrease in their population numbers. Conservation efforts have been made to protect and preserve the remaining Blue-headed Racquet-tail population.

Local and national conservation organizations in the Philippines have partnered together to establish protected areas within the bird’s range. The establishment of these protected areas is important in safeguarding the birds habitat and ensuring their survival.


In conclusion, the Blue-headed Racquet-tail bird species is a distinctive and captivating species found in the Philippines. Its geographic variation, subspecies, and closely related species provide fascinating insights into this bird familys evolutionary history.

However, their current status as near threatened shows the need for effective conservation measures that will protect and preserve their remaining populations. The rapid pace of habitat loss, hunting, and the pet trade must be curbed to ensure that this remarkable bird species continues to thrive in the wild.


The Blue-headed Racquet-tail inhabits a variety of forested habitats that range from primary and secondary forest, to woodland areas, thickets, and gardens. These parrots prefer to remain in high elevations of up to 1000 meters above sea level, where the environment is cooler and more humid.

They are endemic to the Philippines, making their habitat in the islands of Palawan, Sulu, and Mindanao.

Movements and Migration

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail is generally considered a non-migratory bird. However, they do have some seasonal movements in response to food availability and breeding season.

During the breeding season, Blue-headed Racquet-tail parrots are found in dense forests, particularly in areas where there are large fruit-bearings trees such as figs, guava, and mangoes, which provide nourishment for the birds. After the breeding season, the Blue-headed Racquet-tail parrots move elsewhere to obtain food from other sources.

In May and June, they tend to move upland, where nectar-rich flowering trees such as firetree become available. During the non-breeding season, the Blue-headed Racquet-tails move within forested areas where fruit-bearing trees are abundant.

The non-migratory nature of the Blue-headed Racquet-tail birds may be attributed to the availability of food throughout the year in the Philippines. The archipelago’s climate is very favorable, with temperatures ranging from 22 to 27 degrees Celsius, and annual rainfall averaging between 1500 and 2000 mm.

This favorable climate ensures that there is always food available for the Blue-headed Racquet-tail.

Breeding and Nesting Habits

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail is monogamous, and they usually mate for life. During breeding season, generally between March and May, the males perform a courtship display which involves spreading and fanning their tail feathers to attract a female.

The male will usually strut around the female and make loud calls to attract her. Once mating occurs, the female Blue-headed Racquet-tail will lay her eggs in a nest cavity.

The nest cavity is usually found in hollows or crevices of large trees, where they also roost at night. The female will usually lay two to three eggs, and both parents will incubate the eggs for approximately 18 to 21 days.

After hatching, the chicks are dependent on their parents for food for about 60 to 70 days. Both parents will provide food for their offspring, consisting of fruit, nuts, and seeds.

The chicks typically remain close to the nest for a few days and then venture out to nearby trees with their parents.

Behavior and Ornaments

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail is a rather vocal bird species, with a range of loud screeches, squawks, and chattering calls. Males will call in the morning and evening during breeding season to attract females.

The female is less vocal and generally quiet, but still communicates with calls to her partner. One unique behavior of the Blue-headed Racquet-tail is that they have an ornate pattern of feathers on their tail, resembling a racquet.

This brightly colored tail is used to attract mates during courtship displays, but also to signal aggression or fear during social interactions. When agitated, the bird may shake its tail feathers, causing the racquet-like tips to quiver.


In conclusion, the Blue-headed Racquet-tail parrot is a fascinating species known for its distinctive appearance, vocals, and interesting behaviors. Their habitat ranges across the Philippines in areas of dense forests, and they remain non-migratory except for seasonal movements to obtain resources.

Breeding season is a critical period for these birds, with courtship displays and parental care involved. The ornate tail feathers on the Blue-headed Racquet-tail birds are a unique characteristic that distinguishes them from other parrot species.

Understanding the Blue-headed Racquet-tail’s behavior, nesting habits, and movements are crucial in appreciating the unique nature of this bird species.

Diet and Foraging


The Blue-headed Racquet-tail parrot is a frugivorous bird species, meaning they primarily feed on fruits. They depend on ripe, succulent fruits and also feed on nuts, seeds, and occasionally insects.

They forage from the early morning until sunset, moving regularly through the forest canopy to search for food. They generally stay in the upper-level canopy, but sometimes move to the lower branches to feed on fruits and nuts.


The Blue-headed Racquet-tail’s diet favors a variety of fruiting trees, including guava, mangoes, figs, and berries, which are rich in nutrients. They also consume different types of palm fruits, seeds, and nuts.

Their feeding habits are also influenced by season, with figs and guava being preferred during their breeding season from March to May. During the non-breeding season, Blue-headed Racquet-tail birds feed on other fruiting trees.

They also feed on nectar from flowering trees, which act as a supplementary food source for these birds.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

The Blue headed Racquet-tail bird species is homeothermic, meaning it regulates its body temperature. They have a high metabolic rate and require a significant amount of calories to maintain their body temperature and perform their daily activities.

Due to their frugivorous diet and active foraging habits, they consume a higher calorie content than their carnivorous counterparts. During the hotter months, Blue-headed Racquet-tail birds reduce their activities and spend more time in the shade, or in vegetation that is below the canopy.

This helps them to conserve energy and regulate their body temperature. The parrots may dip into nearby streams or puddles of water to cool their bodies during hot weather.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


Blue-headed Racquet-tail birds vocalize frequently, using a range of sounds and vocalizations to communicate with others in their flock. The males are louder than the females and have a more elaborate range of sounds.

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail has three distinct types of vocalizations – contact calls, alarm calls, and begging calls. The contact calls are used by both males and females to identify themselves to their mates and maintain contact.

The alarm calls are a loud screeching sound that alerts other flock members to the presence of predators, and the begging calls are used by the chicks to beg food from their parents. Males perform courtship displays using a mix of vocal and physical movements.

They spread their tail feathers, fan them out, and make loud calls to attract females’ attention. They may also perform exaggerated physical movements, such as wing flapping, head nodding, and jumping up and down.


In conclusion, the Blue-headed Racquet-tail parrot’s dietary habits and unique vocalizations contribute to understanding the species’ ecology and behavior. Its diet comprises of an assortment of fruits, seeds, and nuts, with varying food preferences during the breeding and non-breeding seasons.

Their active foraging habits and active metabolism requires them to consume more calories, making their frugivorous diet the ideal source of nourishment. The Blue-headed Racquet-tail parrot’s vocalization patterns are a critical element of their communication, enabling them to establish contact, warn flock members of predators, and maintain bonds.

The courtship displays’s vocal and physical characteristics demonstrate the species’ elaborate social behaviors, and its metabolism shows the species’ ability to regulate their body temperature. Understanding the Blue-headed Racquet-tail parrot’s vocalizations and feeding patterns provides unique insights into the species’ behavior and contributes to appreciating their beauty and ecological significance.



The Blue-headed Racquet-tail has adapted to arboreal life and is agile in-flight and climbing vertically on tree trunks. They use their wings and feet to move quickly through the upper-level canopy of the forest.

In search of food and nesting sites, they fly from tree to tree, and their adaptation enables them to evade predators such as eagle and hawks that dwell in the upper canopy and shrub layer.

Self Maintenance

Blue-headed Racquet-tail birds care for themselves by maintaining their plumage through preening. They use their bill and tongue to oil their feathers, smooth them out, and remove dirt and parasites.

They also bathe in water if available or use dewed leaves and wipe their feathers clean.

Agonistic Behavior

Blue-headed Racquet-tail birds also exhibit agonistic behavior with members of their flock and other bird species. They use loud screeches and squawking noises to establish their territory and warn intruders.

In cases where the conflict cannot be resolved through vocalization, the birds may engage in physical combat, using their beaks and talons to defend themselves.

Sexual Behavior

Sexual behavior in the Blue-headed Racquet-tail involves courtship, copulation, and parental care. During the breeding season, males perform elaborate courtship displays, spreading their tail feathers and making loud calling noises to attract females.

The males strut around the female and often jump up and down while moving their tail back and forth as part of their courtship display.


The Blue-headed Racquet-tail’s breeding season ranges between March and May with the onset of heavy rain. They are monogamous birds, and during the breeding season, the females will lay two to three eggs within a nest cavity in a tree.

Both parents will incubate the eggs for approximately 18 to 21 days. After hatching, the chicks remain in the nest under parents’ care for approximately 60 to 70 days, during which time both parents provide food for the chicks.

Demography and Populations

The Blue-headed Racquet-tail population is declining due to increasing habitat loss, deforestation, hunting, and the pet trade. There are only an estimated 2,500 to 9,999 mature individuals of the Blue-headed Racquet-tail bird species, and it is currently classified as “near threatened” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List.

The Philippine government has implemented measures

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