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Discover the Vibrant World of Blue-Cheeked Parrots: Identification Behavior and Threats

The Blue-cheeked Parrot, scientifically known as Amazona dufresniana, is a stunning bird species that inhabits the vast rainforests of South America. Known for their vibrant colors and remarkable vocal abilities, these remarkable creatures have become increasingly popular for their unique characteristics.

However, despite their striking physical features and lively personalities, the Blue-cheeked Parrot remains an elusive bird species that is not often seen by birdwatchers and enthusiasts. In this article, we will delve into the identification, plumages, molts, and other essential facts about the Blue-cheeked Parrot.


Field Identification

The Blue-cheeked Parrot is a medium-sized parrot that typically ranges from 33-38cm in length, with a wingspan of 51-60cm. These birds have a predominantly green plumage, with a striking blue cheek patch that extends down to their neck.

They also have a bright red crown, lores, and forehead, while their throat and breast are paler green. The primary and secondary feathers are blue on the top, with green edges.

Their tail feathers are blue on the top, green on the bottom, and have a yellow tip. Blue-cheeked Parrots also have dark gray eyes, black legs, and a black bill.

Similar Species

One of the challenges of identifying Blue-cheeked Parrots is their physical resemblance to other Amazona parrots. For instance, the Yellow-headed Parrot is a similar species with a yellow head instead of a blue-cheeked one.

Also, the Mealy Parrot has a similar physical outlook and range compared to the blue-cheeked, but the strength of their blue invades almost their entire crown. However, the blue-throated parrot has more blue intensities on the throat than the blue-cheeked.

Thus, understanding the distinctive features that differentiate Blue-cheeked Parrots from similar species will help in their positive identification.


Blue-cheeked Parrots show sexual coloration dimorphism: males have larger beaks, and dominant blue cheeks compared to females. Other than the physical differences between the sexes, Blue-cheeked Parrots have two plumages; immature and adult.

The immature birds have darker feathers, specially duller greens, brown highlighted wing feathers, and a partial blue on the crown. Whereas adult birds have fully blue crown and cheeks, more intense green coloring, and more prominent salmon-colored beaks.


The Blue-cheeked Parrot goes through two molts each year; the prebasic molt and prealternate molt. The prebasic molt takes place after the breeding season, and the prealternate molt takes place before the breeding season.

During the prebasic molt, Blue-cheeked Parrots replace their feathers and grow in new bright and colorful ones. The pre-alternate molt involves the birds changing their colorful feathers to duller ones, which serve as camouflage during their breeding season.


In summary, the Blue-cheeked Parrot is an excellent bird species with beautiful and distinctive features making it stand out from other bird species in their habitats. Their vibrant colors, unique vocal ability, and fascinating behavioral characteristics, make them an exciting bird species to study and observe in the wild.

Understanding their identification, plumages, and molt patterns is essential in viewing and recognizing these magnificent birds whenever we are lucky to encounter them.

Systematics History

The Blue-cheeked Parrot, also known by its scientific name Amazona dufresniana, belongs to the family Psittacidae. This family includes macaws, parakeets, and other parrots.

The systematics history of the Blue-cheeked Parrot can be traced back to the 18th century when Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish naturalist, first classified it. However, the naming and classification of Blue-cheeked Parrots have undergone several changes over the years.

Geographic Variation

Blue-cheeked Parrots are found in various regions of South America, including Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina. One area of noted geographical variation is the Amazon Basin, where Blue-cheeked Parrots are present in several subspecies.

These subspecies are distinguished by slight variations in physical features and vocalizations.


There are at least five subspecies of the Blue-cheeked Parrot, which differ in geography and physical attributes. These subspecies include the A.

d. dufresniana, A.

d. atalaia, A.

d. diadema, A.

d. festiva, and A.

d. xanthopteryx.

A. d.

dufresniana is the nominate subspecies, which is found in the eastern Amazon Basin of Brazil. It has a striking blue colored cheek, with pink to orangish facial skin, dark emerald green body, and red glossed crown.

A. d.

atalaia occurs in the Gois state of central-western Brazil. It is noted for the brighter green upperparts or feathers, a more extensive auricular patch, and a smaller bill size than the nominate subspecies.

A. d.

diadema inhabits eastern Bolivia, mainly in the border with the Brazilian states of Rondnia and Mato Grosso. This subspecies has an intensely green cheek and the smallest range of occurrence among the other subspecies.

A. d.

festiva is located in the Saquarema and So Fidelis regions of eastern Brazil. This subspecies features a blue cheek that runs down to the lower edges of the nape, richer green plumage, and a more bluish-green iris.

Finally, A. d.

xanthopteryx, located in northern Argentina and Paraguay, has a blue cheek contrasting against a gray face, yellow eye rings, and distribution of orange feathers on its belly. These subspecies illustrate the diversity of Blue-cheeked Parrots throughout their range, helping researchers understand their biology, behavior, and evolution.

Related Species

The Amazona genus is a diverse group of parrots that include Blue-cheeked Parrots as well as Lilac-crowned and Yellow-headed Parrots. These species are closely related and share many physical and behavioral traits.

The Blue-cheeked Parrot is known for its exceptional vocal ability, with some individuals capable of mimicking human speech. This ability is shared with the Yellow-headed Parrot, who is also well-known for its remarkable vocalizations.

Meanwhile, the Lilac-crowned Parrot is distinguishable due to its crown coloration, which appears gray, not red in the case of Blue-cheeked Parrots.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The geographical range of the Blue-cheeked Parrot has undergone several changes over the years due to human activities such as deforestation and urbanization. The Amazon rainforest has been subject to deforestation for commercial logging, mining, and other uses, which has caused the species’ range to shrink.

Additionally, the urbanization of areas within the Blue-cheeked Parrot’s distribution range often leads to the loss of habitat and poses a significant threat to the survival of the species. Due to these changes, the Blue-cheeked Parrot has been listed as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

The conservation of this species, along with other wildlife in the Amazon Basin, is critical to maintain its biodiversity and ecosystem services.


In conclusion, understanding the systematics history, subspecies, geographic variation, and related species to the Blue-cheeked Parrot will aid researchers’ efforts to understand this remarkable bird species. It also highlights the importance of preserving its natural habitat to prevent further range contraction, which could push already threatened population numbers into more precarious circumstances.


The Blue-cheeked Parrot is a tropical forest species and can be found in various habitats throughout its range. It prefers humid forest habitats such as primary lowland forests, selectively logged forests, and gallery forests.

It is notable that the subspecies A. d.

xanthopteryx has adapted to live in open savannah areas of Argentina and Paraguay.

These birds are rarely found in urban or suburban areas, although they are occasionally observed in areas with tall trees and gardens near their natural habitat.

The Blue-cheeked Parrot is adaptable and can also be found inhabiting mangroves, plantations, and agricultural areas, where they can feed on crops like maize and fruits of trees like mango.

Movements and Migration

Blue-cheeked Parrots are generally not migratory birds, meaning that they do not undertake long-distance seasonal movements. They are considered non-migratory, with seasonal movements driven by environmental factors like food and water availability.

Nonetheless, the pattern of movements of Blue-cheeked Parrots has been the subject of little research, and most of what is known about their movements is limited to population movements on a local scale. For example, during the dry season, Blue-cheeked Parrots will move to areas with more abundant resources and then spend the wet season in areas of the forest where their favored food plants are located.

They will also roost in different areas depending on the availability of resources, and this may lead to changes in the local distribution of the species.

Breeding season behavior

In general, Blue-cheeked Parrots are monogamous birds, with pairs forming a strong bond lasting several seasons. Their breeding season occurs during the rainy season, when food and water are most abundant.

During this time, pairs occupy territories and excavate various types of cavities in tree trunks or branches using their stout bills to prepare their nest. They will also enlarge the cavities by removing the wood chips regularly.

During courtship, males will perform displays and behavior, such as tail-fanning, wing-flapping, and vocalizations, to attract mates. Blue-cheeked parrots are generally social birds and often form flocks.

These flocks are seen across their range, with a maximum of 50 individuals on average. The flocks have loose association, with members moving foraging areas, roosting sites, and breeding territories depending on their needs or as a result of disturbance caused by local human activities.

During feeding, Blue-cheeked Parrots tend to consume a variety of plants, including fruits, nuts, seeds, and buds of native trees and shrubs. Threats to

Habitat and Conservation Status

The Blue-cheeked Parrot is classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to habitat loss and unsustainable capture for the pet trade.

The destruction of their habitats through deforestation, logging activities, agriculture, and urbanization has resulted in significant population declines across their range. Another potential direct threat is hunting of adult birds for food or collection of their eggs from nests for pets or for trade.

These activities, coupled with other human activities such as the introduction of invasive species, mining, and climate change, pose significant risks to the long-term survival of this species. The conservation of Blue-cheeked Parrot populations across their range is needed to prevent further range contraction and conserve areas that provide connectivity among different populations.

Protecting these vital habitats should be a priority, and conservation efforts must be integrated into regional planning and guide policies that impact the forests’ natural resources.


To sum up, the Blue-cheeked Parrot is a fascinating bird species with unique physical features, vocal ability, and behavior. Its habitats, movements and conservation status are crucial elements in understanding this remarkable bird and its survival.

Adequate conservation measures that prioritize protection of their critical habitats, management of the pet trade, and policing of illegal hunting practices can play a critical role in safeguarding the Blue-cheeked Parrot’s future.

Diet and Foraging


Blue-cheeked Parrots are omnivores, and their diet is predominantly made up of fruits, nuts, seeds, and buds of various native trees and shrubs in their range. They are capable of using their powerful beaks to crack nuts and seeds, making use of their tongues to extract kernels.

They are also known to feed on flowers and nectar, insects and other arthropods, as well as invertebrates like snails.


Studies have shown that Blue-cheeked Parrots tend to have a varied diet with differences between subspecies. The subspecies in Argentina and Paraguay, A.

d. xanthopteryx, is noted to feed extensively on food crops that include maize and other grains that grow around the open savanna areas it inhabits.

Other subspecies in Brazil and Bolivia prefer eating fruits, including small and large berries, palms, figs, and passionfruits. The species is also attracted to trees of the cashew and Cecropia species, known for their preferred fruits.

Additionally, studies have shown that Blue-cheeked Parrots tend to choose water resources in the forest as feeding sites during the dry season, coinciding with the fruiting period of many of the trees.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

The metabolism and body temperature regulation of Blue-cheeked Parrots have developed physiological adaptations to support their energetic demands and cope with changes in temperature. For example, their digestive system has adapted to process high fiber foods and seeds, leading to efficient nutrient extraction for their energy requirements.

Along with a remarkable ability to store food in their crops while foraging, they have developed a cushion of fat deposits around their lower back that provides energy reservoirs to sustain them for long periods. Regarding body temperature regulation, Blue-cheeked Parrots have a high metabolic rate that helps them maintain their internal body temperature.

These birds possess a close system of blood vessels near the skin that allows them to dissipate heat when required. They are also known to regulate their temperature by fluffing their feathers that create a layer of air trapping heat close to their bodies.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


Blue-cheeked Parrots are known for their exceptional vocal ability, including their ability to mimic human speech. They are usually vocal in the early morning and late afternoon periods, with a basic repertoire of sounds comprising of simple whistles, squawks, and screams.

However, as they develop, they increase their repertoire of sounds, like coughs, hissing sounds, and chuckling sounds. The species possesses an exceptional capability of imitating the sound of other birds, animals, and human speech, which has become renowned and attracted their use as pets worldwide.

They can also produce specific vocalizations to communicate within their groups, such as loud screeches and whines that are used to attract mates, intimidate predators, establish territory, and communicate with their young chicks.


Understanding the diet, feeding habits, metabolism, and vocal behavior of Blue-cheeked Parrots provides insight into how the species has adapted to its environment. The efficient foraging strategies demonstrated by these birds and their vocal abilities make them fascinating to study.

However, as noted, the pet trade, and habitat loss continue to pose a significant threat to the survival of the Blue-cheeked Parrot. Protecting these birds’ essential habitat and raising awareness of the risks of capturing and keeping these animals as pets can protect these species for future generations.



Blue-cheeked Parrots move around their habitat by flying with powerful flaps of their wings. They possess strong, sturdy feet that help them walk and climb trees.

They also have a unique ability to rotate their heads 180 degrees to scan their surroundings and detect potential predators.

Self Maintenance

Self-maintenance behavior in Blue-cheeked Parrots involves their preening and maintenance of their feathers. Preening assists in stimulating the oil glands located on their skin, which run along the base of their feathers, allowing the birds to spread the oil across their feathers to provide protection and water resistance.

They also engage in dust-bathing, rubbing their feathers in sand or fine dust to help remove unwanted dirt and oils.

Agonistic Behavior

Blue-cheeked Parrots are generally social, and they associate in flocks to forage, roost and breed. However, at times, when competing for resources or territories, they can display aggressive behaviors.

These aggressive behaviors include threats and vocalizations, attacking others of their flock or other bird species to chase them away from territory or resources.

Sexual Behavior

During the breeding season, male Blue-cheeked Parrots perform courtship displays, involving calls, wing flapping, and tail fanning. Female parrots assess male displays and eventually choose their mates based on the intensity and frequency of their displays.

Once successful pairs have paired, they exhibit bonded behavior and share nest-building activities, which include excavation of nesting cavities or enlarging existing ones as a prelude to egg-laying.


Blue-cheeked Parrots become sexually mature from the age of two years. During the breeding season, which typically occurs between November and March, females lay one to three eggs, with incubation periods lasting approximately four weeks.

Incubation duty is shared between the male and female until the eggs hatch, after which the parents take turns to feed the chicks.

Blue-cheeked Parrots do not breed every year, with their breeding behavior regulated by environmental factors like food and water availability.

They are known to exhibit delayed breeding in years with low food and water resources, and this regulation of their breeding activity ensures that their populations remain relatively stable.

Demography and Populations

Populations of Blue-cheeked Parrots have been reported in several regions scattered throughout their range. However, habitat loss from deforestation and the pet trade has been detrimental

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