Bird O'clock

Discover the Unique Characteristics of the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet

Birds are fascinating creatures that come in different shapes, colors, and sizes. Each species is unique, with its own set of distinctive characteristics that make them stand out.

In this article, we will take a closer look at the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet, also known as Forpus spengeli. Identification:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is a small bird that measures about 12cm in length, weighing around 14 to 18 grams.

They have a distinctive turquoise blue patch on their wings, which sets them apart from other parrotlet species. These birds also have a white eye ring surrounding their black eyes, a greenish-yellow forehead, and a blue-gray rump.

Field Identification:

When you are trying to identify a Turquoise-winged Parrotlet in the wild, look for the following characteristics:

– Small and compact body

– Short tail

– Turquoise blue patch on the wings

– Greenish-yellow forehead

– White eye ring

– Blue-gray rump

Similar Species:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is easily distinguishable from other species in the parrotlet family due to their distinctive turquoise blue wings. However, there are a few species that can be confused with the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet.

The Green-rumped Parrotlet (Forpus passerinus) and the Mexican Parrotlet (Forpus cyanopygius) are two species that look similar to the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet. The best way to distinguish between these species is by their range and distribution.


The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet has three different plumages, which are the juvenile, adult, and breeding adult. – Juvenile: The juvenile plumage is duller than that of an adult.

Their wings and tail feathers have brownish or greenish color, and the blue turquoise patch is less evident. – Adult: The adult plumage is brighter than the juvenile.

They have a bright turquoise-blue patch on the wings, white eye ring, and a greenish-yellow forehead. The tail is greenish or blue-green.

– Breeding Adult: During the breeding season, the male Turquoise-winged Parrotlet displays brighter colors. The blue turquoise patch on their wings is more intense, and their forehead becomes brighter greenish-yellow.


The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet goes through two molts per year. The first molt occurs between December and January when they replace their body feathers.

The second molt takes place between May and June, during which the birds replace their flight feathers. Conclusion:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is a beautiful bird that is easy to identify due to their distinctive turquoise blue patches on the wings.

This species is not considered threatened, but their populations may be declining in some parts of their range due to habitat destruction. It is essential to protect these birds and their habitats to ensure their survival in the wild.

By understanding their characteristics, we can appreciate and admire their beauty while protecting them for generations to come. Systematics History:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet, also known as Forpus spengeli, is a species of small parrot endemic to South America.

This species was originally described by Thayer and Bangs in 1905, based on specimens collected in western Ecuador. Since its description, the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet has undergone numerous taxonomic revisions, resulting in changes in its classification.

Geographic Variation:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet exhibits some geographic variation across its range. The birds found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia have a brighter yellow-green color on the forehead and have more blue on the rump than those found further south.

Individuals from southern Ecuador have a yellowish-green forehead and less blue on the rump. Subspecies:

There are three recognized subspecies of the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet.

They are:

– Forpus spengeli spengeli: This subspecies is found in western Ecuador. – Forpus spengeli caucae: This subspecies is found in southern Colombia and northern Ecuador.

– Forpus spengeli venezuelae: This subspecies is found in western Venezuela. Related Species:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is part of the Forpus genus, which includes other small parrot species such as the Green-rumped Parrotlet (Forpus passerinus) and the Pacific Parrotlet (Forpus coelestis).

These species share similar physical characteristics, such as small size, short tails, and brightly colored plumages. Historical Changes to Distribution:

The range of the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet has changed over time due to various factors such as habitat destruction, climate change, and human activity.

The species’ original range was limited to western Ecuador, but it has since expanded further north into southern Colombia and south into northern Peru. Habitat loss due to deforestation and agriculture has had a significant impact on the species, resulting in a decline in population size in some areas.

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet has also been affected by the pet trade, with large numbers of birds being captured for sale in the international pet market. Climate change has also had an impact on the species, with changes in temperature and rainfall patterns affecting the availability of food and breeding sites.

As a result, the distribution of the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet may continue to shift in the future as the climate changes further. Efforts to conserve the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet have been underway in recent years, with a focus on protecting its natural habitat and preventing the capture of birds for the pet trade.

The species’ inclusion on international protection lists and its designation as a priority species for conservation efforts have also helped to raise awareness of its conservation status and increase efforts to protect it. Conclusion:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is a small parrot species endemic to South America that has experienced many changes in its taxonomy and distribution over time.

Despite its small size, this species plays an important role in its ecosystem and is a valuable asset to South American biodiversity. Efforts to protect the species and prevent further declines in its population size are critical if we are to ensure its continued existence in the future.


The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is a species of parrot that is found throughout South America. This species inhabits open woodland, savannas, and forest edges at elevations of up to 1,800 meters.

They prefer open, grassland habitats with scattered trees and bushes, as well as other open habitats like forest clearings, agricultural areas, and urban areas. In their natural habitat, Turquoise-winged Parrotlets are often found living in small groups or pairs.

They are known to be highly social birds that interact extensively with one another. Because these birds are not found in large flocks, it is believed that they have highly specialized habitats and behaviors for survival.

Movements and Migration:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is primarily a non-migratory species, meaning that they do not undertake significant seasonal movements. However, some individuals may undertake partial migrations in search of resources or breeding opportunities.

Most populations are sedentary but move around locally to find suitable food sources or nesting sites. During the breeding season, both males and females engage in nest-site selection, with each individual contributing to the process.

Once a suitable nest site is found, the female builds the nest, which is usually in a tree cavity or a hole in a tree. The male then defends the nesting territory against intruders, while the female incubates the eggs and cares for the chicks.

In general, Turquoise-winged Parrotlets have a relatively small home range, which is determined largely by the availability of food, water, and nesting sites. Because they need specialized habitats for survival, they do not undertake long-distance movements like other migratory bird species.


The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is not considered a globally threatened species by the IUCN Red List, but its populations may be declining in some parts of its range due to habitat destruction, as well as capture for the pet trade. Habitat loss and fragmentation are the primary threats to this species’ survival.

This species is designated as a priority conservation species in some areas and is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Conservation Efforts:

Several conservation efforts have been implemented to protect the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet and their habitat.

Protected areas such as national parks and reserves have been established in several countries, including Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia, to protect this species and their habitat. These protected areas help to reduce habitat loss and fragmentation, prevent the degradation of ecosystems, and encourage the recovery of populations of species like the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet.

Additionally, many organizations have started working on monitoring the populations of these birds and have resulted in a much better understanding of their range and populations. Protected areas have been effective in securing the breeding habitats of the parrotlet.

In some areas, the birds have adapted to agricultural lands and have established themselves in these areas. Efforts are being made to ensure that these birds habitats and breeding sites are preserved in areas where agricultural development is taking place.

There have also been campaigns to raise awareness about the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet and their conservation status. Education programs have been implemented in local communities, spotlighting their importance in the ecosystem and the threats they face.

Efforts to curb the illegal trade in birds have resulted in the collection of valuable data about the extent and severity of this trade, enabling authorities to take action against the offenders. Conclusion:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is a unique species of parrot that inhabits open woodland, savannas, and forest edges and is found throughout South America.

Even though they are not facing an immediate risk of extinction, habitat loss and degradation are still significant threats to the species. Therefore, preserving the environment and ensuring sustainable development in areas where the birds are found plays a key role in their survival.

Intervention measures, especially through the establishment of protected areas, have proven to be successful in the conservation of the species. Diet and Foraging:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet has a specialized diet, and its feeding behavior is closely linked to its specific habitat preferences.

This species forages primarily on the leaves, flowers, and seeds of grasses and other plants. They may also feed on small insects and their larvae, although these make up only a small fraction of their diet.


Turquoise-winged Parrotlets have a unique feeding strategy. They often feed on grass seeds, which they retrieve by hanging from the seed head while pulling the seeds off with their beak.

They use their feet to grasp the seed heads and their beaks to extract the edible portions. They also feed on fruits and flowers by climbing along branches and using their beaks to pluck the ripe fruits and flowers.


The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet’s diet varies depending on the available food in their habitat. They feed on a range of plant species depending on the season, geographic location, and environmental conditions.

During dry seasons, they feed on grass seeds, while during the rainy season, they tend to consume more fruits and flowers. Metabolism and Temperature Regulation:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet has a unique metabolism that enables them to adapt to different environmental conditions, including temperature.

This species has a high metabolic rate, which allows it to maintain a stable body temperature in both hot and cold environments. The bird’s small size minimizes the amount of heat it loses, and its high metabolism ensures that it can maintain its body temperature within a narrow range while foraging in different habitats.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior:

Turquoise-winged Parrotlets are known for their vocalizations, which are critical to their social interactions and communication. These birds produce a variety of sounds, including whistles, chirps, and screeches, which are used for a range of purposes, from communicating with one another to establishing territory and attracting mates.


The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet has several different calls, which are used for a variety of purposes. They are known for their high-pitched, whistled calls, which are used for communication among group members and when foraging.

During courtship, males produce a complex series of calls and trills. The male may fly from one perch to another while producing this call to attract a female.

While defending their territories, the species calls are more aggressive and consist of high-pitched trills and screeching sounds. These calls are meant to warn others of the bird’s presence and assert its dominance over the area.

In general, Turquoise-winged Parrotlets are very vocal birds and are highly communicative with each other. Their vocalizations play an essential role in social interactions, mating, and defending territories.


The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is a unique species with specialized feeding behavior and a high metabolic rate that enables it to thrive in different environmental conditions. These birds have a varied diet and are known for their high-pitched calls, which are used to communicate with other members of their group and establish territories.

Despite being well adapted to their environment, habitat loss and deforestation are major threats to the species’ survival. Therefore, it is crucial to continue monitoring their populations and raise awareness to ensure their conservation.



The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is a small bird, and its locomotion is characterized by short, rapid flights and quick, perky hops. In flight, their wings beat rapidly, and they often twist and turn in the air while flying.

On the ground, they move by jumping and hopping between branches. Self Maintenance:

Turquoise-winged Parrotlets are fastidious when it comes to maintaining their appearance.

These birds spend a great deal of time grooming themselves, using their beaks to preen their feathers and remove debris. They also take dust baths instead of water baths, rolling around in the dust to remove excess oil from their feathers.

Agonistic Behavior:

Like other parrot species, Turquoise-winged Parrotlets use various agonistic or aggressive behaviors to establish dominance over their territories. They use body language, such as wing flapping and tail flicking, and vocalizations to signal their presence and assert their dominance.

Aggression is usually displayed during breeding seasons and the establishment of territories. Sexual Behavior:

Male Turquoise-winged Parrotlets are territorial and display a range of behaviors to attract a mate, including calling, singing, and displaying.

During courtship, the male will present potential mates with food and display a range of physical behaviors, such as puffing up their feathers, dancing, and vocalizing. The female chooses a mate based on these courtship behaviors, with the most attractive males being selected for breeding.


The breeding season for Turquoise-winged Parrotlets typically takes place from October to March. During the breeding season, males vigorously defend their territory and display a range of aggressive behaviors to deter other males from entering the area.

Females will choose a mate based on the male’s ability to establish and maintain a territory and his ability to provide food and protection to the family unit. Turquoise-winged Parrotlets usually breed in small groups, with several pairs nesting in the same area.

The female builds the nest in a tree cavity, often using chips of wood and bark to construct a cup-shaped structure. The female incubates the eggs while the male brings food for her and the chicks.

The chicks fledge after a month or so, with juveniles leaving the nest around six weeks after hatching. Demography and Populations:

The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is not considered a globally threatened species, and populations appear to be stable across much of their range.

While deforestation and habitat destruction are major threats to the species, conservation efforts, including habitat protection and anti-poaching measures, are helping to ensure that their populations remain healthy. Population size estimates for the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet vary depending on the location.

Specifically, the species seems to inhabit a small range, in which local populations can be estimated to vary roughly between 1,000 and 5,000 individuals, and its populations health is vulnerable to habitat loss, fragmentation, and development. An accurate assessment of the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet’s population size would require further studies and research.


The Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is a small, highly specialized bird species that plays an important role in the ecosystem of South America. Their unique feeding behavior, specialized social interactions, and vocal behavior make them fascinating to observe in the wild.

Conservation efforts aimed at protecting their habitat and promoting sustainable development will be key to ensuring the continued survival of this beautiful species for generations to come. In order to sustain their populations into the future, their behavior, breeding, and demographics must be thoroughly researched and accurately assessed.

In conclusion, the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet is a unique species of parrot that inhabits open woodland, savannas, and forest edges throughout South America. These birds have a specialized diet and highly specialized habitats for survival.

Turquoise-winged Parrotlets are known for their high-pitched calls, which are used to communicate with other members of their groups and establish territories. Breeding occurs during a specific season and involves both courtship behavior and parental care.

The populations of Turquoise-winged Parrotlet are vulnerable to habitat destruction, deforestation, and the pet trade. Conservation efforts are necessary to ensure their continued existence.


Popular Posts