Bird O'clock

Discover the Fascinating World of Blue-Headed Hummingbirds: Behavior Habitat and More!

Imagine walking through a tropical forest and being greeted by a flurry of color and buzzing sounds. Among the various bird species that call the forest home, the Blue-headed Hummingbird, Riccordia bicolor, stands out with its iridescent feathers and distinctive blue cap.

In this article, we will take a closer look at the Blue-headed Hummingbird, including its identification, plumages, and molts.


Field Identification

The Blue-headed Hummingbird is a small bird that measures approximately 7 cm from bill to tail. Its iridescent green upperparts are a distinctive feature, as are its white underparts and a black bill with a red base.

However, it is the blue cap on the male birds’ heads that gives this bird its name. Females, on the other hand, have a green cap with a white line just above the bill.

Similar Species

There are a few other hummingbird species that are similar to the Blue-headed Hummingbird, and it can be challenging to tell them apart. One of these is the Green-crowned Brilliant, which has a similar green upperpart and white underpart but lacks the blue cap.

Another is the Steely-vented Hummingbird, which also has a blue cap, but its underparts are buff-colored instead of white.


The Blue-headed Hummingbird has two plumages: the breeding and non-breeding plumage.

Breeding plumage: During the breeding season, males have a more vibrant blue cap and a metallic green throat. Females will develop a white or gray throat patch during this time.

Non-breeding plumage: After the breeding season, males will lose the metallic green feathers on their throat, and the blue cap will become less prominent. Females will lose the white or gray throat patch.


Like most birds, the Blue-headed Hummingbird goes through molts, where old feathers are shed and new ones grow in their place. Prebasic molt: This molting usually occurs during the non-breeding season, and involves the birds shedding their old feathers and growing new ones.

Pre-alternate molt: This molting usually occurs during the breeding season, and involves the males shedding their old feathers and growing new ones for their breeding plumage.


The Blue-headed Hummingbird, Riccordia bicolor, is a beautiful bird species that is easily recognizable by its distinctive blue cap and iridescent green feathers. By learning more about this bird’s identification, plumages, and molts, we can appreciate and understand more about these amazing creatures.

Systematics History

The Blue-headed Hummingbird, Riccordia bicolor, has gone through several taxonomic changes over the years. Initially, it was classified under the genus Trochilus.

Later, it was moved to the genus Eulampis, and finally, it was reclassified under the genus Riccordia. Nowadays, many ornithologists even split this species into several independently evolving lineages or species.

Geographic Variation

The Blue-headed Hummingbird has a wide range throughout South America. It can be found in Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.

This range includes a broad diversity of habitats, from tropical rainforests to shrublands, savannas, and cloud forests.


The Blue-headed Hummingbird has several recognized subspecies, which are usually differentiated based on differences in plumage. These are:

– Riccordia bicolor bicolor: Found in Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyana.

This subspecies has a green throat and underparts. – Riccordia bicolor chionura: Found in western Ecuador and northwestern Peru.

This subspecies has a white tail tip and a green throat. – Riccordia bicolor cyanescens: Found in northeastern Peru and western Brazil.

This subspecies has a blue-tinged cap and a slightly longer bill than other subspecies. – Riccordia bicolor cabanidis: Found in central and eastern Brazil.

This subspecies has a blue cap and a greenish-black throat.

Related Species

The Blue-headed Hummingbird is closely related to several other hummingbird species, including the Green-crowned Brilliant, the Violet-capped Hummingbird, and the Snowcap.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The distribution of the Blue-headed Hummingbird has changed significantly over time. For example, in the early 20th century, the bird was thought to be extinct in Trinidad and Tobago.

However, in the 1940s, it was rediscovered on the island, and now it is considered to be a rare breeding resident. In addition, the Blue-headed Hummingbird has also experienced changes in distribution due to habitat loss.

Deforestation, urbanization, and other human activities have caused significant degradation and loss of its natural habitat. This has led to a decline in population numbers in some areas, particularly in the Andean region.

The species is also listed as a “Species of Least Concern” by the IUCN, indicating that it is not currently considered to be at high risk of extinction.


The Blue-headed Hummingbird is a beautiful and fascinating bird species that has undergone several taxonomic changes and experienced changes in distribution over the years. As with many organisms, the species is influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors that impact its survival and reproduction.

By studying its systematics history, geographic variation, subspecies, and related species, as well as historical changes to distribution, we can better understand this species and work to ensure its conservation for future generations.


The Blue-headed Hummingbird is a species that can adapt to different habitats and altitudes. Its natural habitat includes lowland forests, rainforests, and cloud forests, but it can also be found in scrublands, savannas, and plantations, as well as urban gardens and parks.

These birds are most commonly found at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,500 meters, but they have been observed as high as 2,600 meters above sea level. The Blue-headed Hummingbird is well adapted to forests, where it can find shelter and food.

These birds feed on nectar from flowers and insects, and they are known to be particularly fond of red and orange flowers. They also consume small insects, including ants, spiders, and flies.

They typically forage near the ground, and they tend to be more active in the morning and late afternoon when the temperature is cooler.

Movements and Migration

The Blue-headed Hummingbird is not known to undertake long-distance migrations. Instead, it is a resident species that stays in its range throughout the year.

However, some populations in the southern regions of the range may move to lower elevations during the winter to find more favorable conditions. In addition to these seasonal movements, the Blue-headed Hummingbird also demonstrates short-distance movements that are related to feeding and breeding activity.

During the breeding season, males will establish and defend a territory that includes a suitable feeding and breeding area. This can lead to short-distance movements of individuals within the region.

The Blue-headed Hummingbird is also known to make local movements in response to changing environmental conditions. For example, during periods of drought, the birds may move to areas with more water or more abundant food sources.

It is worth noting that some populations of the Blue-headed Hummingbird that live in areas with a more pronounced dry season can experience changes in distribution throughout the year. During the wet season, these birds tend to inhabit the forest interior, but during the dry season, they may move to the forest edge or even transition to drier, more open habitats.


The Blue-headed Hummingbird is a resident species that is generally restricted to a relatively small range. However, within this range, it can adapt to different habitats and altitudes, and it can make short-distance movements to ensure access to food and suitable breeding sites.

While it is not known to undertake long-distance migrations, some populations may make seasonal movements to lower elevations during the winter. By understanding the movements and habitat preferences of the Blue-headed Hummingbird, we can work to conserve this beautiful and fascinating species for generations to come.

Diet and Foraging


Like all hummingbirds, the Blue-headed Hummingbird has a very high metabolism, which means that it requires a constant supply of energy to maintain its body temperature. To meet this demand, they typically feed on nectar from a variety of flowers.

They are particularly attracted to red and orange flowers because they contain higher concentrations of sugars. In addition to nectar, these hummingbirds also feed on small insects, such as spiders, ants, and flies.

These insects provide a source of protein and other essential nutrients that are not found in nectar. They tend to forage near the ground and among lower vegetation, where they can find insects more easily.


The Blue-headed Hummingbird has been observed feeding on a variety of plant species. In the Andean region, they are known to visit flowers of the family Bromeliaceae, such as Tillandsia and Aechmea, as well as flowers of the genus Heliconia.

In Brazil, they have been observed visiting flowers of the genus Ocotea and the family Malvaceae. In Venezuela, they have been observed visiting flowers of the family Bignoniaceae.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

The high metabolism of the Blue-headed Hummingbird requires a constant source of energy to maintain body temperature. Unlike other birds that regulate their body temperature through shivering, these birds employ a unique method of thermoregulation.

They can lower their body temperature at night to conserve energy, and then raise it again during the day when they begin feeding. By regulating their body temperature in this manner, they can conserve up to 80% of their energy, which is essential for their survival in the wild.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


While Blue-headed Hummingbirds are primarily known for their colorful feathers and rapid flight, they are also accomplished singers. These birds use a variety of vocalizations to communicate with other members of their species, particularly during the breeding season.

One of the most common vocalizations made by Blue-headed Hummingbirds is a series of high-pitched chips or trills. These sounds are made by the male birds during territorial disputes with other males.

The frequency and duration of the trills can vary depending on the situation. For example, when a male is attracting a mate, he may make longer and more complex trills than when he is defending his territory.

In addition to their territorial calls, Blue-headed Hummingbirds also make a series of vocalizations during courtship behavior. These sounds are made by both male and female birds and can include short chirps, buzzes, and whistles.

Overall, the sounds and vocal behavior of the Blue-headed Hummingbird are an important part of their communication and mating rituals. By using their voices to signal their presence and defend their territory, they can maintain their breeding success and ultimately contribute to the survival of their species.



The Blue-headed Hummingbird is a highly active bird species, known for its rapid and agile flight. They move their wings in a figure-eight motion, which allows them to hover and even fly backward.

They can also fly at very high speeds, with some species recorded flying at over 50 miles per hour. When feeding, they typically hover near flowers, using their long beaks to draw nectar from the center of the flower.


The Blue-headed Hummingbird is a fastidious cleaner and spends a considerable amount of time preening its feathers. They use their long, flexible tongues to groom their feathers and remove any dirt or debris.

Agonistic Behavior

Male Blue-headed Hummingbirds are highly territorial and will fiercely defend their feeding and breeding areas from other males. They use a variety of aggressive displays, including aerial chases, dive-bombing, and trilling vocalizations.

Females are less territorial and tend to avoid conflict with other birds.

Sexual Behavior

During the breeding season, male Blue-headed Hummingbirds will establish a territory that includes one or more suitable feeding and breeding areas. They will use displays of aerial acrobatics, vocalizations, and visual displays to attract a mate.

Once a male has attracted a female, he will perform a courtship dance and feed her nectar to establish a bond. The female will then build a nest using materials such as moss and lichen, or even spider silk.


The Blue-headed Hummingbird has a breeding season that can vary depending on the region and climate. In some areas, the breeding season may last from December to May, while in others, it may occur from July to September.

Once a female has created a nest, she will lay one or two eggs that are typically white in color. The eggs are small and elongated, measuring less than 1 cm in length.

Both male and female birds will take turns incubating the eggs, which typically take around 14-19 days to hatch. Once the eggs have hatched, the parents will take turns feeding the chicks with regurgitated nectar and small insects.

The chicks will fledge around 20-30 days after hatching, and they will become independent shortly after.

Demography and Populations

The Blue-headed Hummingbird is considered to be a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This means that their populations are currently stable and not at risk of extinction.

They are relatively common throughout their range, although they may be vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. In some regions, local populations of Blue-headed Hummingbirds may be affected by changes in environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought or destruction of habitat.

Conservation efforts aimed at preserving critical habitat and reducing human impact on these birds can help ensure their long-term survival. The Blue-headed Hummingbird, Riccordia bicolor, is a fascinating bird species that has captured the attention of naturalists and bird enthusiasts for centuries.

From its rapid and agile flight to its unique vocalizations and courtship displays, this bird is both entertaining and informative to study. Through understanding the different aspects of its behavior, diet, habitat, movements, breeding, and population, we can better appreciate the complex nature of this species and the importance of protecting its habitats and preserving its survival.

As we strive to understand and protect the Blue-headed Hummingbird, we can work towards greater conservation and awareness that will benefit not just this bird, but also our planet’s biodiversity and ecosystem as a whole.

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