Bird O'clock

7 Fascinating Facts About Bald Eagles and Their Behaviors

The bald eagle is one of the most iconic birds of prey in North America. This majestic bird is famous for its striking appearance and impressive wingspan, which can reach up to 7 feet in length.

The bald eagle has played a significant role in American culture, serving as a national symbol of strength and freedom. In this article, we will explore the physical attributes, identification, and plumage cycles of the bald eagle.


Field Identification

The bald eagle is a large bird that is easily identifiable in the field. Adults have a distinctive white head and tail, contrasting with a dark brown body.

Juveniles have a mottled brown and white appearance, with a dark beak and eyes. One of the most notable features of the bald eagle is their yellow eyes, which are used for spotting prey from a great distance.

The bald eagle’s talons are also impressive, measuring up to four inches in length, which they use to catch and kill prey.

Similar Species

When it comes to identifying the bald eagle, it’s important to know the species that are similar in appearance. The golden eagle shares some of the physical attributes of the bald eagle, such as the large size, robust bill, and strong talons.

However, the golden eagle has a dark bill, and the feathers on their head and neck are a uniform dark brown. Ospreys share the brown and white color pattern of the juvenile bald eagle, but their white feathers are limited to the head and neck.

Ospreys also have a distinctive white belly and a dark mask around their eyes.


The bald eagle’s plumage changes several times over the course of its life. Below is a brief overview of the bald eagle’s molting cycles.

Juvenile Plumage: The juvenile plumage is brown and white, with a dark beak and eyes. Juvenile eagles acquire their adult plumage gradually over the course of several years.

Basic I Plumage: Also known as their first basic plumage, this stage occurs between the ages of one and two years. Eagles in basic I plumage have a mixture of brown and white feathers, with some yellow on their bill.

Basic II Plumage: This stage occurs between ages three and four. Eagles in basic II plumage have more white feathers on their head and tail, but still have a significant amount of brown feathers.

Adult Plumage: By age four or five, bald eagles will have acquired their adult plumage. At this stage, bald eagles have bright white heads and tails, with a dark brown body.

Mature eagles also have yellow eyes and bills, and white feathers on their legs.


The bald eagle’s plumage is replaced gradually over the course of a molt, which occurs once a year. Molting occurs in late spring or early summer, and takes about five months to complete.

During the molt, old feathers are lost and replaced with new ones. Molting occurs in a specific pattern, starting with the head and working its way down to the tail feathers.

This allows eagles to maintain their ability to fly during the molt. In conclusion, the bald eagle is a majestic bird that is easily recognizable in the field.

Knowing its distinguishing features, along with its plumage cycles and molting cycles, is key to accurately identify the bird. The bald eagle’s physical appearance, along with its cultural significance, make it a bird that continues to fascinate and captivate people of all ages.

Systematics History

The bald eagle has a long and complex taxonomic history. In the early 18th century, the bald eagle was first described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus, who classified it as Falco leucocephalus.

However, in the mid-20th century, genetic analysis showed that the bald eagle was more related to the sea eagles than the true falcons. As a result, the bald eagle was reclassified as Haliaeetus leucocephalus.

Geographic Variation

The bald eagle exhibits geographic variation in its plumage, size, and behavior. These differences have led to the recognition of several subspecies of the bald eagle.

Geographic variation is primarily driven by differences in climate, geography, and prey availability. In general, bald eagles in northern regions tend to be larger and darker than eagles in southern regions.


There are five recognized subspecies of the bald eagle, each with distinct physical and behavioral traits. 1.

Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus

Also known as the Southern bald eagle, this subspecies is found in the southern United States, from Texas to Florida. They are the smallest subspecies, with a body length of 30-34 inches and a wingspan of 6-7 feet.

Southern bald eagles have a gray-brown body and wings, with a white head and tail. 2.

Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucophalus

Also known as the Northern bald eagle, this subspecies is found in the northern United States and Canada. They are the largest subspecies, with a body length of 36-40 inches and a wingspan of 7-8 feet.

Northern bald eagles have a dark brown body and wings, with a white head and tail. 3.

Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus

Also known as the Alaskan bald eagle, this subspecies is found in Alaska and western Canada. They are intermediate in size between the Southern and Northern subspecies, with a body length of 32-36 inches and a wingspan of 6.5-7.5 feet.

Alaskan bald eagles have a dark brown body and wings, with a white head and tail. 4.

Haliaeetus leucocephalus washingtoniensis

Also known as the Pacific Coast bald eagle, this subspecies is found along the Pacific Coast of the United States. They have a body length of 32-36 inches and a wingspan of 7-8 feet.

Pacific Coast bald eagles have a dark brown body and wings, with a white head and tail. 5.

Haliaeetus leucocephalus ichthyaetus

Also known as the Southern African bald eagle, this subspecies is found in coastal southern Africa. They are smaller than the North American subspecies, with a body length of 26-31 inches and a wingspan of 5-6.5 feet.

Southern African bald eagles have a dark brown body and wings, with a white head and tail.

Related Species

The bald eagle is a member of the family Accipitridae, which includes the hawks, eagles, and kites. The closest relatives of the bald eagle are the six species of sea eagles in the genus Haliaeetus.

The closest relatives of the sea eagles are the fish eagles in the genus Ichthyophaga.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The bald eagle was once found throughout North America, from Alaska to Mexico. However, due to habitat loss, hunting, and contamination from pesticides like DDT, the bald eagle population declined rapidly in the mid-20th century.

By the early 1960s, there were only an estimated 400 nesting pairs of bald eagles in the United States. In response to this drastic decline, the bald eagle was placed on the Endangered Species List in 1978.

This listing provided legal protections for the bird, and efforts were made to reduce pollution and protect habitat. In addition, efforts were made to reintroduce bald eagles to areas where they had been extirpated.

Thanks to these conservation efforts, the bald eagle population has rebounded in recent decades. In 2007, the bald eagle was removed from the Endangered Species List, and its population is now considered stable in most areas.

Despite this success, the bald eagle still faces threats from habitat loss, pollution, and climate change. Continued conservation efforts are necessary to ensure the long-term survival of this iconic bird.


The bald eagle is a fascinating species with a complex taxonomic history and geographic variation. Its decline in the mid-20th century led to its placement on the Endangered Species List, but successful conservation efforts have led to a population rebound and its removal from the list.

The historical changes to its distribution and potential threats it faces are a reminder that continuous conservation efforts are necessary to ensure the long-term survival of this majestic species.


The bald eagle is a species that is adapted to a wide range of habitats, from tundra to tropical wetlands. Bald eagles are found throughout North America, from Alaska and Canada to Mexico.

Their preferred habitats include large bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Bald eagles are also found in forested areas that provide nesting sites, as well as open grasslands and deserts where prey is abundant.

When nesting, bald eagles require tall trees with strong branches and a clear view of the surrounding areas. They typically choose old-growth forests or isolated trees near waterways.

Bald eagles build large stick nests, or aeries, which they reuse and add to each year. The nests can measure up to six feet in diameter and can weigh over a ton with repeated use.

Movements and Migration

Bald eagles are known for their impressive movements and migration patterns. In general, bald eagles are non-migratory birds that remain in their breeding territories year-round.

However, populations in northern regions may migrate south during the winter months to take advantage of warmer climates and abundant prey. Juvenile bald eagles are more likely to undertake long-distance movements and may travel hundreds or even thousands of miles from their natal territories.

This dispersal behavior allows them to establish their own breeding territories and avoid competition with relatives. Bald eagles are capable of soaring for hours on end, and they use thermal currents to stay aloft.

During migration, bald eagles typically travel during the day, where they can take advantage of the rising thermals and avoid the hazards of night flight. Juvenile bald eagles typically migrate later in the season than adults, as they require more time to mature and build up adequate fat reserves.

In general, the migration patterns of bald eagles are influenced by factors such as food availability, climatic conditions, and nesting success. Bald eagles are opportunistic feeders, and they may alter their migration patterns to take advantage of an abundant food source.

In addition to natural factors, the movements of bald eagles are also influenced by human activity. Development of new infrastructure (such as large wind turbines) and land use changes can impact migratory corridors and nesting areas.

Conservation efforts such as habitat restoration and the protection of nesting sites can help mitigate these impacts and ensure the long-term survival of bald eagles.


The bald eagle is a species that is adapted to a wide range of habitats and has impressive movements and migration patterns. They are non-migratory birds that remain in their breeding territories year-round, but some northern populations may migrate south during the winter months.

Bald eagles are capable of traveling long distances in search of food and breeding territories, and their movements are influenced by a variety of natural and human factors. Conservation efforts are important to ensure the protection of bald eagle habitat and their migration corridors for their continued survival.

Diet and Foraging


The bald eagle is a top predator with a diet that is mainly comprised of fish, though they are also known to consume a range of other prey. Bald eagles hunt by perching near a body of water and scanning the surface for food.

Once prey is spotted, the eagle swoops down to capture it with its sharp talons, or else plucks it from the surface of the water while in flight. Bald eagles are capable of carrying prey that weighs up to half their body weight.

Bald eagles are also known to scavenge, using their keen sense of smell to locate carrion.


Bald eagles are opportunistic predators and their diet varies depending on the region they inhabit. The most common prey of bald eagles are fish, which constitute around 70% of their diet.

Salmon, trout, and other large fish are the preferred prey of bald eagles. Bald eagles are also known to prey on other birds, such as ducks, geese, and gulls.

In addition, they prey on small mammals, including rabbits, muskrats, and squirrels. In coastal areas, bald eagles will feed on shellfish, crabs, and even the occasional sea otter.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

Bald eagles have a high metabolism that enables them to fly long distances without needing to stop to rest. To maintain their high metabolism and body temperature, they need to consume a large amount of food each day.

Adult bald eagles typically eat one to two pounds of food per day, with the amount varying depending on the availability of prey. Bald eagles are able to regulate their body temperature by adjusting the position of their feathers, which allows them to trap or release heat.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


Bald eagles are known for their distinctive vocalizations, which are used in social interactions and during courtship displays. Bald eagles are not songbirds and are not known for their musical abilities.

Instead, their vocalizations are primarily used for communication with other eagles. The vocalizations of bald eagles can be divided into two categories: non-vocal and vocal.

Non-vocal displays include wing flapping, physical contact like bill clacking, head bobbing, and branch shaking. These displays, combined with the use of visual cues, are used to communicate territorial boundaries and establish mating pairs.

Vocal displays include a range of sounds from chirps to whistles to screams. The most iconic sound associated with bald eagles is the high-pitched screech that is often used in movies or TV shows.

Bald eagles use this call during territorial disputes or to signal danger. Other vocalizations include grunts, chatter, and a low-pitched garbage call that is used when hunting and feeding.

During courtship displays, bald eagles engage in a synchronized duet of calls and physical displays to establish pair bonds. Bald eagles will often perform aerial displays, flying in circles while soaring with their talons locked.

These displays are accompanied by high-pitched whistles and grunts.


Bald eagles are remarkable birds of prey with a unique set of behaviors and adaptations that enable them to thrive in a variety of habitats. Their diet and hunting techniques have been key to their success as top predators, and their vocalizations play an important role in social interactions and communication.

Bald eagles are amazing creatures, and continued conservation efforts are necessary to protect their habitats and ensure their survival for future generations to come.



Bald eagles are powerful fliers and can reach speeds of up to 40 miles per hour. They primarily use their powerful wings to soar, riding on air currents to conserve energy during flight.

Bald eagles also have a unique wing shape that allows them to perform tight turns and sudden changes in direction. When hunting, bald eagles use their sharp talons to capture prey while in flight.

On land, bald eagles are not particularly mobile, as their long wingspan and heavy body make it difficult for them to maneuver. They are capable of walking short distances, hopping across the ground and using their wings to maintain balance.


Bald eagles engage in regular self-maintenance behaviors, such as preening and bathing. Preening involves cleaning and maintaining feathers, which helps to protect against wear and tear.

Bald eagles also bathe regularly, which helps to remove dirt and debris from their feathers.

Agonistic Behavior

Bald eagles are highly territorial and engage in agonistic behavior to defend their territory. Agonistic behavior may involve vocalizations, physical displays, and even physical altercations.

Bald eagles use a variety of physical displays to establish dominance and defend their nests, including bill clacking, wing flapping, and talon displays.

Sexual Behavior

Bald eagles engage in a variety of behaviors during the breeding season. Mating pairs often engage in coordinated flights and displays of affection, including the locking of talons in mid-air.

Bald eagles have a monogamous breeding system, partnering with the same mate for several breeding seasons.

Breeding behavior is often accompanied by a series of vocalizations, such as calls and chirps, which help to establish and reinforce the pair bond.


Bald eagles breed once a year, typically between October and January, depending on the region and climate.

Breeding pairs engage in a series of behaviors and displays during the courtship period, including coordinated flights and vocalizations.

Once the pair bond is established, the mating pair will proceed to establish a nesting territory. Bald eagles build large stick nests in tall trees, typically near waterways.

The nesting process involves the pair working together to construct the nest, with the female typically taking on the majority of the responsibilities. Bald eagles reuse their nests year after year, often adding new materials to strengthen their structure.

Once the nest is established, the mating pair will lay one to three eggs. The eggs are incubated for approximately 35 days, with both parents taking turns incubating.

Once the eggs hatch, the parents work together to feed and care for the young, which remain in the nest for approximately 10 to 12 weeks. Once the young have fledged, they remain with their parents for a few additional weeks, learning to hunt and forage on their own.

Demography and Populations

The bald eagle population declined

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