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7 Fascinating Behaviors of the Blue-Capped Puffleg

The Blue-capped Puffleg is a small hummingbird that has captured the hearts of bird enthusiasts and nature lovers alike. With its vibrant colors and unique physical characteristics, this bird species is a remarkable sight in the wild.

In this article, we will delve into the world of the Blue-capped Puffleg, discussing its identification, plumages, and molts.


Field Identification

The Blue-capped Puffleg is a distinctive bird species that can be identified by its blue cap and greenish-gold feathered body. It has a relatively short bill and a long tail that has a dark band near the tip.

Its wings have white spots, making it easier to spot when it is flying. The female bird species have a less vibrant coloration, but they still retain the distinctive blue cap.

Similar Species

The Blue-capped Puffleg can often be confused with other hummingbirds, especially those that have a similar coloration. For example, the Brown Inca, which is also found in the same region as the Blue-capped Puffleg, has a similar greenish-golden coloration but lacks the blue cap that is characteristic of the Blue-capped Puffleg.

Another bird species that can be mistaken for the Blue-capped Puffleg is the Buff-tailed Coronet, which has a buff-colored tail and a black head.


The Blue-capped Puffleg undergoes a series of molts throughout its life, resulting in different plumages that are used for different purposes, such as breeding, nesting, and migration.


During the breeding season, the Blue-capped Puffleg males develop a brilliant blue cap, which serves as an important visual signal in attracting mates. The females do not have a blue cap but still exhibit a vibrant greenish-golden coloration.

The juveniles, on the other hand, have a less vibrant coloration and resemble the females. The Blue-capped Puffleg goes through two molts during the year, one during the breeding season and another during the winter season.


The Blue-capped Puffleg is a unique and fascinating bird species that can be identified by its distinctive blue cap and greenish-golden feathered body. It is an important bird species in the ecosystem, serving as pollinators for flowering plants.

Understanding the different plumages and molts of the Blue-capped Puffleg provides valuable insights into the life cycle and behavior of this bird species. By educating ourselves about the Blue-capped Puffleg, we can appreciate and protect this remarkable bird species for generations to come.

Systematics history

The study of the Blue-capped Pufflegs systematics and evolution has been steeped in controversy for decades. The debate mainly revolves around its classification and taxonomic status.

Early ornithologists classified it as multiple different species; however, in the 19th century, it was commonly referred to as Eriocnemis coeruleus. In 1954, its genus was changed to Haplophaedia and later moved to its present genus Eriocnemis.

Geographic variation

The Blue-capped Puffleg is an Andean bird species found predominantly in Ecuador, specifically in the higher elevations of the northern and central Andes. They have also been spotted in the Paramo vegetation just above the tree line in Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, and Venezuela.

They are habitat specialists and prefer to live in high-altitude, montane forests, cloud forest, and grassy savannas.


The Blue-capped Puffleg is divided into seven subspecies, which vary in coloration, size, and geographic location.


Eriocnemis glaucopoides aethereus found in Colombia

2. Eriocnemis glaucopoides caeruleus – found in Venezuela


Eriocnemis glaucopoides cyanolaemus – found in Ecuador

4. Eriocnemis glaucopoides delaticollis – found in Ecuador


Eriocnemis glaucopoides distans – found in Colombia

6. Eriocnemis glaucopoides exhaustus – found in Ecuador


Eriocnemis glaucopoides glaucopoides – found in Ecuador

Geographic variation has been used to define some of the subspecies within the Blue-capped Puffleg. For example, the bird found in the southern part of their range, Eriocnemis glaucopoides cyanolaemus, has more extensive and bright blue plumage on their crowns compared to those in the northern range.

Related species

The Blue-capped Puffleg has close phylogenetic relationships with other Eriocnemis species, such as the Glowing Puffleg and the Black-breasted Puffleg. These species also have a similar geographic distribution, habitat preference, and behavior.

The Blue-capped Puffleg, Glowing Puffleg, and Coppery-naped Puffleg were once considered conspecific, but molecular evidence showed that they are distinct species.

Historical changes to distribution

The Blue-capped Pufflegs geographic distribution has undergone significant changes over time.

Habitat destruction and degradation due to human activities, such as deforestation and agriculture expansion, have led to a reduction in their range.

In the 1980s, the bird was considered endangered due to habitat loss, and more recently, it has been assessed as a species of least concern.

There have been reports of range expansions of the Blue-capped Puffleg in select areas of its range.

In Ecuador, it has been spotted outside its known range, and it has been reported as far down as Pichincha and Cotopaxi in the central and northern region of Ecuador. Nevertheless, there is little information on whether this is due to a natural range expansion, a result of reforestation efforts, or simply better detection.

Climate change also presents a significant threat to the Blue-capped Puffleg. Global climate change could result in the complete loss of their preferred habitat, which can push the bird outside their known range or result in a decline in population.

As they are habitat specialists, any change in climate and vegetation would significantly affect the Blue-capped Pufflegs distribution.


In conclusion, the Blue-capped Pufflegs systematics are complex, and it still remains an actively debated topic. As it currently has seven recognized subspecies, each of which has slight differences in appearance and distribution, the species diversity cannot be underestimated.

Human activity has threatened the birds habitat and range, which can potentially cause major problems for future conservation efforts. Therefore, understanding the Blue-capped Pufflegs systematics, geographic variation, and historical and current distribution is crucial for its continued existence.


The Blue-capped Puffleg is a neotropical bird species that resides in the high-altitude Andean forests of South America. The species prefers humid montane forests and shrub lands, which are found at altitudes ranging from 1600 to 3800 meters.

It is commonly found in habitat with epiphytes, bromeliads, and mosses, which are used for nesting and foraging. Such plant species provide shelter and food sources for these birds, increasing their survival rate and reproductive success.

Movements and Migration

The Blue-capped Puffleg is mainly a resident bird species, with most individuals staying in the same area year-round. However, some populations have been noted to engage in relatively short-distance migrations in response to environmental changes.

These birds mostly travel to higher altitudes during the non-breeding season when searching for food resources. Food resources for the Blue-capped Puffleg are scarce during the non-breeding months when the flowering plants that the species relies on are not available in the normal habitat.

For this reason, these birds migrate seasonally to high altitude regions that still have flowering plants, sometimes traveling up to 200 meters higher than their normal altitude. They generally follow the vegetation that is blooming and will migrate according to the availability of these flowers.

During the breeding season, Blue-capped Pufflegs may have a limited movement or no migration at all. This is because they do not depend on flowers for survival as much and have evolved to feeding on different food resources.

Blue-capped Pufflegs prefer to eat insects and spiders when the flowering plants in their regular habitat are not available, making them less dependent on the flowers compared to other migratory bird species. Endemic to the Andes region, the Blue-capped Puffleg faces potential environmental threats from global climate change that is rapidly altering the vegetation types in the high altitude areas.

The loss of the cloud forests that they depend on might compromise their main habitat and, in turn, force them to migrate long distances into unsuitable habitats. Climate change poses a significant threat to their existence, as it could potentially lead to a decline in their population size or even their eventual extinction.


In summary, the Blue-capped Puffleg is a fascinating bird species that resides in the high-altitude Andean forests. It depends on a specific habitat type, mainly the humid montane forests and shrublands, for shelter and food.

Though it is a mainly resident bird species, some individuals undertake seasonal migrations to access flowering plants and other food sources in regions with higher altitudes. The loss of their habitat could push them outside their normal range, which could have major consequences for their population survival.

Therefore, understanding the Blue-capped Pufflegs movements, migration patterns, and habitat requirements is critical for maintaining its existence in an ever-changing environment.

Diet and Foraging


The Blue-capped Puffleg feeds primarily on nectar derived from a variety of flowering plant species. They prefer tubular-shaped flowers, which they use their long bills to probe.

Blue-capped Pufflegs also supplement their diets with insects and spiders, which they find on leaves and in flowers while feeding. Despite their small size, Blue-capped Pufflegs have been observed defending flowers from other hummingbirds such as the Buff-tailed Coronet and Black-tailed Trainbearer.

They do this through aggressive behavior, such as chases or physical contact. To defend their feeding territory, the Blue-capped Pufflegs feathers puff up in a territorial display that warns off others and may physically attack any intruders.


The Blue-capped Pufflegs primary source of food is nectar from flowers, which they acquire by inserting their long, narrow bills into the flowers’ interior. Insects and spiders make up the bulk of their diet during the non-breeding months, as food sources become scarce, and the availability of flowers declines.

The Blue-capped Puffleg has a unique preference for certain flower colors. They are particularly attracted to red-orange colors that are prevalent in flowers in the Andean region.

They will also consume sap from plants when nectar is scarce, making their resource utilization particularly flexible.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

Hummingbirds have a high metabolic rate, requiring a significant amount of energy to fly and forage. The Blue-capped Puffleg has several adaptations to combat this energy expenditure, including a high rate of glucose metabolism and the capability of using fats more efficiently.

To maintain their metabolism, hummingbirds have developed effective heat regulation systems. Blue-capped Pufflegs maintain their body temperature within a narrow range, between 38 to 42 degrees Celsius, by regulating their metabolic processes.

They can do this by fluffing up their plumage and hold their wings away from the body to reduce heat loss or increasing their metabolic rate to generate heat.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


The Blue-capped Puffleg communicates with others primarily through vocalizations, and males use these calls for mating purposes. Males use their vocalizations to attract females and ward off other males from their territory.

The Blue-capped Pufflegs song is a rapid series of short notes that almost resemble machine-gun fire. They sing constantly throughout the day in their territories, as they are very territorial.

Males also use prrrtt and peeo sounds, which are more complex calls than their song, to warn off other males from their territory. These calls are often accompanied by aggressive displays, such as hovering or dive-bombing.

Female Blue-capped Pufflegs occasionally give soft calls, which differ from the males and are heard primarily during courtship. The Blue-capped Pufflegs vocalizations are unique, and they remain distinctive when compared to other Eriocnemis species.

By researching these vocalizations, ornithologists can gain valuable insights into their behavior and habitat requirements.


In conclusion, the Blue-capped Pufflegs diet and foraging habits are unique, as they supplement their diet of nectar with insects and spiders to survive outside of the breeding season. Their metabolism has evolved to maintain their energy needs, and they can also maintain their body temperature through thermoregulation.

The species vocalizations are complex, and they play a crucial role in communication and breeding behaviors. Studying these aspects of the Blue-capped Pufflegs biology helps us better understand this magnificent bird and its role in its ecosystem.



The Blue-capped Puffleg has evolved to be an excellent flyer, capable of hovering and flying backwards for extended periods. They use their wings in a figure-eight motion, a unique aspect of their aerial maneuverability.

During foraging, Blue-capped Pufflegs can feed on flowers while hovering mid-air, or they perch on branches to feed.

Self Maintenance

Self-maintenance behavior of Blue-capped Pufflegs includes a range of activities such as preening their feathers, bathing, and roosting. These birds also engage in sunbathing behavior, which helps eliminate feather mites and parasites, and stimulates the production of vitamin D.

Typically, Blue-capped Pufflegs can be seen sitting high on exposed perches, like small branches or even wires, for hours, exposing their dark upperparts to the sun.

Agonistic Behavior

Blue-capped Pufflegs are territorial birds that have evolved several unique behaviors for defense against intruders. When approached by a potential rival, they become aggressive and vocalize, holding their wings away from the body.

They also puff up their feathers in a threatening display, which can ward off intruders. In extreme circumstances, male Blue-capped Pufflegs may even engage in physical fights to defend their territory.

Sexual Behavior

Male Blue-capped Pufflegs use vocalizations to attract females during breeding season, with the goal of acquiring mate and defending their territory. These vocalizations are distinctive, and males repeat them constantly while perched high on a branch in their breeding territory.

The male may aggressively defend his territory, which includes the area containing his preferred feeding site.


Blue-capped Pufflegs engage in breeding behavior between September and November in their native region, though the timing can vary depending on altitude and geography. During breeding season, males will display their colorful plumage, which plays a role in the courtship process.

The breeding process in Blue-capped Pufflegs involves several unique behaviors, including a remarkable aerial display, led by the male. He starts by diving into the air at high speeds, producing a high-pitched whistling sound.

Once he reaches the bottom of the dive, he then zooms back up and hovers, producing a distinctive chirping noise toward the female. After mating, the female constructs a small, compact nest using moss, lichen, spider webs, and other materials, built on the outside of leaves, and tends to it independently.

The nest’s location varies, but it is often far from the male’s preferred feeding site and is situated high above the ground. The female lays two small white eggs, which she incubates for around 20 to 23 days.

Demography and Populations

The global population of Blue-capped Pufflegs is difficult to estimate due to their forested habitat, but it is believed that the species is currently stable. As habitat loss and fragmentation continue to be a significant reason for population declines, any conservation actions must focus heavily on forest preservation and habitat restoration.

Recent studies have shown that the Blue-capped Puffleg may be able to use fragmented forest canopies to maintain their population densities. They may also use trees within agricultural landscapes to establish their breeding territories, but the agricultural areas may not always provide adequate foraging opportunities.

The Blue-capped Puffleg’s success in surviving in significantly fragmented habitats suggests the species may be less sensitive to habitat fragmentation than other Andean bird species. However, further studies are needed, examining the Blue-capped Pufflegs population trends and behavioral adaptations to fragmented habitats, to ensure management and conservation efforts are more effective.


In summary, the Blue-capped Puffleg displays several unique behaviors and adaptions, including their aerial display during courtship and their highly aggressive territorial behavior. The bird’s habitat-specific diet, vocalizations, and mating behaviors all reflect the species’ complex biology.

While the species currently appears to be a relatively stable population, a focus on conservation and continued monitoring of the populations is crucial in ensuring the conservation of this remarkable bird species.

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