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5 Fascinating Facts about the Cinnamon Ground Dove

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is a bird species native to the Philippines, particularly in the islands of Luzon, Mindoro, Marinduque, and Mindanao. This medium-sized bird is known for its unique and striking plumage, which has made it a favorite among birdwatchers and nature enthusiasts.

In this article, we will discuss the identification, field characteristics, plumage, and molts of the Cinnamon Ground Dove.

Identification

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is a medium-sized bird that measures around 25 cm in length and weighs about 140g. Its most striking feature is its cinnamon-colored plumage, which is smooth and glossy.

Its wings and tail are dark brown, while its head and neck are greyish-brown. It has a long and slender bill, which is black in color and measures about 2cm in length.

Its eyes are dark brown, and its legs and feet are reddish-brown. Field

Identification

The Cinnamon Ground Dove can be easily identified in the field by its cinnamon-colored plumage.

Its flight is swift and direct, with rapid wing beats interspersed with glides. It usually forages on the ground or low vegetation for seeds, fruits, and insects.

Its call is a soft cooing sound that is often heard in the early morning and late afternoon.

Similar Species

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is often confused with other dove species, particularly the Luzon Bleeding-heart dove and the Mindanao Bleeding-heart dove. However, the Cinnamon Ground Dove can be easily distinguished from these species by its cinnamon-colored plumage.

The Luzon Bleeding-heart dove has a distinctive patch of red on its breast, while the Mindanao Bleeding-heart dove has a white spot on its breast.

Plumages

The Cinnamon Ground Dove has one main plumage, the cinnamon-colored feathers that cover its body. This plumage is smooth and glossy, with no markings or patterns.

However, this plumage may appear slightly darker or lighter depending on the lighting conditions. There are no significant differences in plumage between males and females.

Molts

The Cinnamon Ground Dove molts once a year between June and August. During this time, the bird sheds its old feathers and grows new ones.

The molt starts with the primaries and secondaries and gradually progresses to the body feathers. The new feathers come in a lighter shade of cinnamon and gradually darken over time.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Cinnamon Ground Dove is a fascinating bird species that is unique for its cinnamon-colored plumage. Its identification, field characteristics, plumage, and molts have been discussed in detail in this article.

If you are planning to go birdwatching in the Philippines, don’t forget to keep an eye out for these beautiful and elusive birds. of the article.

Systematics History

The Cinnamon Ground Dove, Gallicolumba rufigula, is a species of bird in the family Columbidae. The genus Gallicolumba was first described in 1861 by the German ornithologist, Philipp Ludwig Statius Mller.

The genus name is derived from the Latin words gallus (rooster) and columba (dove) and reflects the rooster-like call of some of the species in this genus. The species name, rufigula, is derived from the Latin words rufus (red) and gula (throat) and refers to the bird’s cinnamon-colored plumage and greyish-brown neck.

Geographic Variation

The Cinnamon Ground Dove has a wide distribution across the Philippines, with populations found in Luzon, Marinduque, Mindoro, and Mindanao. Despite its wide distribution, there is relatively little geographic variation in this species.

However, some slight differences in plumage have been noted between populations from different islands. For example, birds from Mindoro and Marinduque have a slightly lighter and more reddish-brown plumage compared to birds from Luzon and Mindanao.

Subspecies

There are currently three recognized subspecies of the Cinnamon Ground Dove:

1. Gallicolumba rufigula rufigula – Found on Luzon, Polillo, and Catanduanes islands.

This subspecies has a darker and richer cinnamon plumage compared to the other subspecies. 2.

Gallicolumba rufigula rubiventris – Found on Mindoro and Marinduque islands. This subspecies has a slightly lighter and reddish-brown plumage compared to the other subspecies.

3. Gallicolumba rufigula nigripennis – Found on Mindanao island.

This subspecies has a slightly smaller size and darker plumage compared to the other subspecies.

Related Species

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is part of the genus Gallicolumba, which consists of 16 species of ground-doves found throughout the Philippines, Wallacea, and New Guinea. The genus is closely related to the genus Alopecoenas, which includes the Bleeding-heart doves.

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is particularly closely related to the Black-faced and Mindanao ground doves, with which it forms a superspecies.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The Cinnamon Ground Dove was historically widespread throughout the Philippines, but its populations have been severely impacted by habitat loss and hunting. The conversion of forested areas to agricultural land and logging has resulted in a significant decline in suitable habitat for the species.

In addition, the species is hunted for food and is also captured for the pet trade. As a result of these threats, the Cinnamon Ground Dove is now considered vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Conservation efforts have been initiated in recent years to protect the remaining populations of the species. These efforts include the establishment of protected areas and the implementation of community-based conservation programs.

However, more work is needed to address the threats facing this species and ensure its long-term survival.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Cinnamon Ground Dove is a fascinating species of bird that is unique for its cinnamon-colored plumage and slender bill. While there is relatively little geographic variation in this species, it has been affected by habitat loss and hunting, and is now considered vulnerable to extinction.

Conservation efforts are underway to protect the remaining populations of the species, but more work is needed to ensure its long-term survival. By studying the systematics and historical changes of the distribution of this bird, we can better understand its ecology and work towards its conservation.

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Habitat

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is a ground-dwelling bird that is primarily found in lowland forests, secondary growth, and forest edges. It is also found in montane forests and forest remnants, but not in agricultural areas or open grasslands.

The species is known to be restricted to undisturbed forest areas and is less commonly found in fragmented forest or disturbed habitats.

Movements and Migration

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is non-migratory and is known to be a sedentary bird. This means that it does not undertake long-distance movements or seasonal migrations.

However, it has been observed that the species may undertake local movements in search of food or water, particularly during times of drought. Some populations have also been observed to move altitudinally in response to changes in temperature or other environmental factors.

Breeding and Nesting

The breeding season of the Cinnamon Ground Dove varies across its range, but generally occurs between February and August. During this time, male birds establish territories and begin calling to attract females.

The courtship display involves the male puffing up its neck feathers and cooing while bobbing its head up and down. Once a pair is established, the male will gather nesting materials and bring them to the female, who constructs the nest.

The nest of the Cinnamon Ground Dove is a flimsy platform of twigs, leaves, and other plant materials, built on the ground or low in bushes. The female lays a single white egg, which is incubated by both parents for about 13-14 days.

The chick hatches with a thin layer of down and is fed by both parents with crop milk, a protein-rich secretion produced in the crop of the parent birds. The chick fledges after about 12-14 days and becomes independent several weeks later.

Threats and Conservation

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, as well as hunting and capture for the pet trade. The species is now considered vulnerable to extinction and is listed as such by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Conservation efforts to protect the Cinnamon Ground Dove include habitat restoration, establishing protected areas, and community-based conservation programs. One example of such programs is the Tamaraw Gene Pool Farm in Mindoro, Philippines, where captive breeding and release of the species have been initiated to increase its population.

Environmental education and outreach programs targeting local communities have also been implemented to raise awareness about the importance of the species and to reduce hunting and capture.

Conclusion

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is a unique and fascinating bird species that inhabits the forests of the Philippines. Its sedentary nature and habitat preference make it vulnerable to the threats of habitat loss, fragmentation, and hunting.

However, conservation efforts are underway to protect the species and ensure its long-term survival. Understanding the bird’s movements and life cycle, as well as its habitat requirements, is essential to develop effective conservation strategies to protect this species and others like it in the wild.

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Diet and Foraging

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is a ground-dwelling bird that forages for food on the forest floor. The bird has a slow, ambling gait and is known to be quite secretive, making it difficult to observe in the wild.

The species is primarily herbivorous, feeding on seeds, fruits, and other plant materials. It has also been observed to feed on insects and other small invertebrates, particularly during the breeding season.

Feeding

The Cinnamon Ground Dove feeds on the ground or low in vegetation, using its slender bill to pick up and manipulate small seeds and fruits. The bird moves slowly and deliberately, using its keen eyesight to locate its food.

During periods of food scarcity, the dove may also climb trees and shrubs to reach berries and fruits higher up.

Diet

The diet of the Cinnamon Ground Dove varies depending on its geographic location and the availability of food sources. In general, the bird feeds on a wide variety of small seeds, fruits, and other plant materials.

Common food sources include bamboo shoots, figs, berries, and the seeds of grasses and other plants. The species has also been observed to feed on insects and other small invertebrates, particularly during the breeding season when protein-rich food is needed for chick rearing.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is an endothermic (warm-blooded) bird, which means that it is capable of regulating its internal body temperature independently of the external environment. The bird’s metabolism is adapted to its lifestyle, allowing it to maintain a high metabolic rate to support its active foraging and flight.

The dove also has a number of physiological adaptations to help it regulate its body temperature, including a well-developed respiratory system and the absence of sweat glands, which reduces water loss.

Sounds and Vocal

Behavior

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is a relatively quiet bird, with a soft and low-pitched cooing call that is often heard in the early morning and late afternoon. The call is typically a series of low-pitched “cooo” notes that are spaced out at regular intervals.

The bird’s vocalizations are used primarily for communication between pairs during the breeding season and to establish territorial boundaries.

Vocalization

The vocalization of the Cinnamon Ground Dove varies depending on the context and the bird’s emotional state. During courtship, the male bird may produce a louder and more repetitive cooing call to attract a mate.

The female bird may respond with a soft coo or purring sound. When agitated or alarmed, the dove may also produce a louder and more rapid cooing call, sometimes followed by a series of wing flaps or tail movements.

Conclusion

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is a fascinating bird species with unique characteristics that make it stand out among other dove species. Its diet and foraging habits are adapted to its ground-dwelling lifestyle, while its vocalizations help it to communicate with its mate and establish territory.

The bird’s endothermic nature and physiological adaptations also allow it to maintain a high metabolic rate and regulate its internal body temperature, essential for its active foraging and flight. By studying the behavior and physiology of this bird, we can better understand its ecology and work towards its conservation.

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Behavior

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is a ground-dwelling bird that displays a range of behaviors in its natural habitat. These behaviors include locomotion, self-maintenance, agonistic behavior, and sexual behavior.

Locomotion

The Cinnamon Ground Dove moves through its habitat with a slow and deliberate gait, using its long, slender legs to take short, careful steps. The bird’s wings are relatively short and rounded, which limits its ability to fly long distances, but allows for quick, fluttering flights to escape predators.

The dove is also known to hop and run along the ground when moving between foraging sites or when alarmed.

Self Maintenance

The Cinnamon Ground Dove spends a significant amount of time on self-maintenance behaviors, such as preening and bathing. Preening involves cleaning the feathers and removing dirt and parasites, while bathing helps to keep the feathers clean and soft.

The bird typically bathes in standing water or streams, splashing water onto its feathers and flapping its wings to aid in cleaning. Agonistic

Behavior

The Cinnamon Ground Dove displays agonistic behavior towards other birds, particularly during the breeding season when competition for resources and mates is high.

Agonistic behavior can include displays of aggression, such as chasing and attacking rivals, as well as displays of submission, such as crouching and bowing. Sexual

Behavior

The Cinnamon Ground Dove displays a range of sexual behaviors during the breeding season, including courtship displays and mate selection.

The male bird typically establishes a territory and attracts a female through a series of vocalization and visual displays. Courtship displays can include puffing up feathers, cooing, and dancing movements.

Once a pair is established, the birds share nest building and egg incubation duties.

Breeding

The breeding season of the Cinnamon Ground Dove varies across its range, but generally occurs between February and August. During this time, the male bird establishes a territory and begins calling to attract a female.

Once a pair is established, both male and female birds take part in nest building and egg incubation. The nest is typically a flimsy platform of twigs and leaves, built on the ground or low in bushes.

The female bird typically lays a single white egg, which is incubated for around two weeks. After hatching, the chick is fed by both parents with crop milk, a protein-rich secretion produced in the crop of the parent birds.

Demography and Populations

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is threatened by habitat loss, hunting, and capture, and is now considered vulnerable to extinction. Population declines have been reported across its range, with significant declines reported in populations on some islands.

Conservation efforts are underway to protect the species and its habitat, but more work is needed to ensure its long-term survival. Population demographics of the Cinnamon Ground Dove vary depending on the location and availability of suitable habitat.

The species is known to be sedentary, with little movement between populations. This can lead to population isolation and genetic drift, which can impact the genetic diversity and viability of the populations.

Research is ongoing to better understand the population dynamics and genetics of the Cinnamon Ground Dove, in order to develop effective conservation strategies.

Conclusion

The Cinnamon Ground Dove is a unique bird species with fascinating behaviors and breeding habits. The bird’s locomotion, self-maintenance, agonistic behavior, and sexual behavior are adapted to its ground-dwelling lifestyle.

The bird’s breeding habits are also adapted to the environment and are essential for the survival of the species. The bird faces threats from habitat loss, hunting, and capture, but conservation efforts are underway to protect the remaining populations and habitats.

Studying the population demographics and behaviors of this bird can help to inform conservation strategies and ensure the long-term survival of the species. In conclusion, the Cinnamon Ground Dove is a fascinating bird species that is unique to the forests of the Philippines.

It is known for its cinnamon-colored plumage, ground-dwelling lifestyle, and sedentary nature. The bird faces threats from habitat loss, hunting, and capture, and is now considered vulnerable to extinction.

However, conservation efforts are underway to protect the remaining populations and habitats. Understanding the population demographics, behaviors, and ecological needs of this bird is vital for developing effective conservation strategies.

By working towards the conservation of this unique bird, we can also help to preserve the biodiversity of the forests of the Philippines, and protect the ecosystem services that they provide.

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