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10 Fascinating Facts About the Vervain Hummingbird

The Vervain Hummingbird is a tiny bird found in Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. It is the second smallest bird species in the world, measuring only 6cm in length and weighing a mere 2.2 grams.

In this article, we will learn more about the identification, plumages, and molts of the Mellisuga minima the Vervain Hummingbird.



Identification: The Vervain Hummingbird has a slim, stubby bill, which is slightly curved downwards. It has a greenish-blue head, back, and upperparts, with a coppery-red throat.

The belly is white, and the tail feathers are dark grey and forked. The wings are relatively short and broad, with conspicuous dark patches.

Similar species: The Vervain Hummingbird is very similar to the Green-throated Carib, which is found in some of the same areas. The Green-throated Carib has a green throat and a longer, more curved bill.

The bill of the Vervain Hummingbird is slightly angled downwards. The females of the two species are more challenging to differentiate.


The Vervain Hummingbird has only two plumages the juvenile plumage and the adult plumage. The juvenile bird lacks the bold, coppery-red plumage on the throat, which is typical of the adult male.


Like many birds, the Vervain Hummingbird undergoes a complete molt once a year, replacing all its feathers. Molting usually occurs between May and August, with the timing varying depending on the location and climate.

The birds’ primary feathers are replaced in sequence, with the innermost feathers molted first, followed by the remaining feathers towards the outer edge of the wing. It is important to note that during the molt, the old feathers are not shed all at once but are lost gradually, resulting in a patchwork appearance.

The process of complete feather replacement can take several weeks, and during this time, the birds may become less active to conserve energy. In conclusion, the Vervain Hummingbird is a unique species that stands out due to its diminutive size and bright plumage.

If you ever get the chance to observe these tiny birds in the wild, take advantage of the opportunity to witness their dazzling colors and aerial acrobatics. Understanding their identification, molting patterns and plumages can help bird enthusiasts to identify and appreciate these tiny avian wonders in their natural habitats better.

Systematics History

The Vervain Hummingbird, scientifically known as Mellisuga minima, has undergone several revisions regarding its taxonomic classification. In the past, it was placed in the genus Orthorhyncus and subsequently reclassified to Micropygia.

Finally, molecular and morphological data from recent studies have firmly placed it in the Mellisuga genus. This genus includes two other hummingbird species, the Purple-throated Carib and the Green-throated Carib.

Geographic Variation

The Vervain Hummingbird has a relatively restricted range, being found only in the Caribbean islands. Despite this, there are slight variations in appearance and behavior across its range.

The subspecies found in Puerto Rico, Mellisuga m. Helonis, is the largest of the subspecies, while those found in Jamaica are the smallest.

Subsequently, it has been suggested that Mellisuga minima may not be monotypic, and its subspecies require further investigation to determine their validity.


Based on the slight differences in appearance mentioned earlier, three subspecies are currently recognized:

– Mellisuga minima minima, which can be found on Hispaniola, Ile de la Gonve, Tortue Island, and others. – Mellisuga minima acredula, which is endemic to Jamaica.

– Mellisuga minima Helonides, which is found only in Puerto Rico. The subspecies M.

m. Helonides is known for its longer bill and overall larger body size.

In contrast, the subspecies found in Jamaica, M. m.

acredula, is the smallest and has relatively shorter wings than the other subspecies.

Related Species

The Vervain Hummingbird is closely related to two other hummingbirds, the Green-throated Carib (Eulamphis holosericeus) and the Purple-throated Carib (Eulampis jugularis). These two species share similar morphology and behavior with the Vervain Hummingbird.

The Purple-throated Carib is a widespread species found in the Caribbean and Central America. It is distinguished from the Vervain Hummingbird by its much larger size, green back, and purple throat.

On the other hand, the Green-throated Carib has a more substantial body size than the Vervain Hummingbird, has a prominent, iridescent green throat, and a longer bill. It is found in areas of the Caribbean, mainly on the Lesser Antilles.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The Vervain Hummingbird’s restricted range is thought to be a result of historical changes to its distribution. Research suggests that the species may have become isolated from other hummingbird populations as a result of the breakup of the former supercontinent of Gondwana, which occurred around 200 million years ago.

Further diversification and speciation among Hummingbird species occurred within the Caribbean during the Late Miocene sometime between 9 to 6-million-years-ago. It was during this time that vegetation changes and the splitting of the Greater Antilles allowed the evolution and differentiation of the Caribbean avian fauna.

Additionally, anthropogenic changes have impacted the species’ range. Clearing of forests for agriculture or real estate development has reduced the amount of habitat available to the species.

This has had significant impacts on the species, particularly in Jamaica, where the population is declining in areas where its habitats are being destroyed. In conclusion, the Vervain Hummingbird is a unique and quite fascinating hummingbird species, with a restricted range in the Caribbean region.

The species’ taxonomy, including its subspecies and related species, continues to undergo reclassification due to molecular and morphological data. Historical changes to the species’ distribution have resulted in its geographic isolation and speciation.

The current and future conservation of this species, and its habitats in Jamaica and other Caribbean islands, is, therefore, of considerable importance.


The Vervain Hummingbird can be found in various habitats across its range, ranging from lowland forests, scrublands, mangroves, and gardens. However, it is most abundant in areas with high densities of flowering plants, such as neotropical orchids, heliconias, and other herbaceous species.

The species is widespread across Jamaica and can be found in any habitat type, including wooded areas, banana plantations, and coffee farms. In Puerto Rico, it is more abundant and more common in the subtropical and lower montane wet forests with openings to flowering of shrubs and trees.

Movements and Migration

The Vervain Hummingbird is considered a non-migratory species, meaning that it has a permanent resident status in its range. However, there are limited movement patterns in the species, especially in response to variations in habitat conditions and resource availability.

During the breeding season, male Vervain Hummingbirds establish territories that they defend against other males for access to feeding sites and breeding opportunities. Females, on the other hand, are polyandrous, meaning that they mate with multiple males, and do not establish a territory during the breeding period.

Males and females engage in courtship displays, which include vocalizations, bill snaps, and acrobatic aerial displays. The males also erect their head feathers, exposing their vibrant throat feathers to attract females.

The species’ limited movement can be observed in response to the availability of nectar resources. Some Vervain Hummingbirds may move across short distances to find a more abundant source of nectar.

During droughts or other environmental challenges that result in reduced nectar production, the species may shift to feeding on insects and spiders, and some may even increase the distance between feeding sites. Vervain Hummingbirds are resident birds in their range, and there are no known patterns of long-distance migration.

However, as demonstrated by studies in other hummingbird species, changes in food availability and habitat conditions may induce some level of movement of the Vervain Hummingbird. Conservation of

Habitat and Movements

The Vervain Hummingbird’s habitat is under threat from various anthropogenic activities, including deforestation, urbanization, and agricultural expansion.

These developments limit the species’ access to food, shelter, and breeding sites, reducing its population densities. In response to these threats, conservation measures have been advocated to protect and improve the status of the species.

These measures include, but are not limited to, reforestation, habitat preservation, and the promotion of agroforestry practices, e.g., shade-grown coffee, which provides critical habitats for the species. Additionally, it is essential to undertake site-specific assessments to determine the ecological requirements of the species in different habitats.

This knowledge is critical in guiding interventions and identifying appropriate conservation measures. In conclusion, the Vervain Hummingbird’s habitat and movement pattern play a significant role in its conservation.

Protecting their habitats and assessing ecological requirements for the species in different habitats is critical for creating effective conservation strategies. Protecting important stopover sites, ensuring food availability, and protecting breeding sites is necessary to ensure the sustainability of the populations.

Diet and Foraging


The Vervain Hummingbird is known for being an active and aggressive feeder, able to hover skillfully as it feeds on nectar-producing flowers. It has a unique tongue that divides into two tips, which it uses to lick nectar with a ratchet-like motion.

It can visit many flowers within a short period by hovering as it feeds. The bird’s wings beat at a rate of around 80 -100 beats per second, allowing it to stay airborne for extended periods as it searches for food.


The Vervain Hummingbird is a nectarivorous species, and like many other hummingbirds, it relies heavily on the nectar of flowering plants for its diet. Nectar provides the necessary energy for the species since it has a high sugar content.

It also feeds on small insects and spiders to supplement its diet’s protein content. Nectar provides up to 90% of the species’ energy requirements.

The Vervain Hummingbird feeds on a wide variety of flowering plants, including orchids, heliconias, and other herbaceous species. It is known to have a preference for red-colored flowers since they contain high nectar sugar concentrations.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

The Vervain hummingbird has a high metabolism rate, which is necessary to meet its energy requirements for sustained flight and hovering. The species has a body temperature of around 41-42C, one of the highest body temperatures among birds.

Hummingbirds have several adaptations that enable them to maintain their body temperature at high levels despite environmental changes. To regulate its temperature, the Vervain Hummingbird adjusts the surface area of its feathers by flattening or fluffing them to control its heat loss or gain.

Furthermore, hummingbirds have a high heart rate ranging from 200 -1200 beats per minute, with some species capable of rapid heart rate changes when in flight. Hummingbirds’ heart rate has been observed to increase when hovering and decreases when perching to conserve energy.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


The Vervain Hummingbird has a moderate range of vocalizations, including twittering sounds, chirps, and chips and a unique wing whistle that sounds like a low-pitched buzz. Males produce vocalizations frequently during courtship displays and territory defense.

Vervain Hummingbirds use vocalizations to communicate with each other and to establish territories. Both males and females produce high-pitched, twittering calls.

Male Vervain Hummingbirds also use an acoustical signal called wing whistle, produced by airflow through their wings. Wing whistles occur as the wings’ direction changes from upstroke to downstroke, creating turbulence in the air.

It is unique to male Vervain Hummingbirds, and it is used in territorial displays to attract females. Studies have revealed that each male Vervain Hummingbird creates its peculiar wing whistle, which is distinctive from other birds.

Through this sound, the male birds can assess their rivals’ physical characteristics and use the sound to attract a mate. In conclusion, the Vervain Hummingbird’s feeding habits, metabolism, and sound signals are essential to its biology and play a crucial role in its survival.

The species is mainly dependent on nectar for its energy requirements, but it also supplements its diet with insects. With its unique tongue and hovering skills, the species can feed rapidly on a wide variety of flowering plants.

Additionally, its high metabolism and temperature regulation help it to maintain the energy required to fly and hover, while its vocalization plays a critical role in communication. Understanding these aspects of the bird’s biology helps in creating effective conservation strategies necessary for safeguarding the species’ survival.



The Vervain Hummingbird is a highly mobile species, and its methods of locomotion are unique among birds. The species’ wings have a structure and movement range that allows it to hover effectively in mid-air, change directions quickly, and cover long distances with minimal effort.

The species’ wings also allow the Vervain Hummingbird to fly backward and hover with remarkable stability and precision. This adaptation enables the bird to feed on nectar from flowers while hovering in the air.

Hummingbirds have an excellent sense of spatial perception, enabling them to avoid obstacles and navigate through dense vegetation effectively.


The Vervain Hummingbird is an extremely active and agile bird, and it engages in self-maintenance behaviors that preserve its feathers’ condition. It preens, removing dust, dirt, and parasites from its feathers, making them more streamlined and efficient.

This process also helps to remove damaged feathers, ensuring that they are replaced during the molt.

Agonistic Behavior

The Vervain Hummingbird is a territorial and aggressive bird, particularly during the breeding season. The male birds defend their territories vigorously, engaging in aggressive behaviors such as the aerial chase, dive-bombing, and combat.

The bird’s aggressive behavior is usually directed towards other males, and they utilize vocalizations and physical displays to intimidate each other and maintain territories.

Sexual Behavior

The Vervain Hummingbird has a unique sexual behavior, and males play a significant role in mating. When courting females, the males perform elaborate aerial displays, including complex flight patterns, vocalizations, and displays of vibrant colors.

During these displays, the males use their iridescent feather colors and enlarge their gorget regions, displaying their brilliant red and green coloration.


The breeding period of the Vervain Hummingbird varies depending on the location. In Puerto Rico, the breeding season lasts from January to June, while in Jamaica, it lasts from April to August.

The species breeds once per year, laying one or two small eggs in tiny structures made of grass and spider webs. The females alone are responsible for constructing these nests.

Females incubate the eggs for about two weeks, while males defend the territory and provide food for the females. Once the eggs hatch, both parents provide food for the chicks, delivering small insects in addition to nectar.

Demography and Populations

The Vervain Hummingbird is not considered globally threatened, and its populations appear to be stable at present. However, habitat disturbance caused by human activity continues to put immense pressure on the species’ populations.

The destruction, degradation, and fragmentation of their habitats have been observed in many areas, leading to reduced nectar resources and limited breeding opportunities for the species. The species’ conservation status is therefore a subject of concern, and various conservation measures have been employed to protect and conserve their habitats.

These measures include the creation of protected areas, proper land use management, and habitat restoration initiatives. In conclusion, behavior and breeding patterns contribute significantly to the Vervain Hummingbird’s biology and are crucial to its survival.

The species’ feeding habits, self-maintenance, and fighting behavior are essential to its demography and help it to navigate its environment and find adequate food sources. The unique mating habits of the species have helped to promote its genetic diversity.

Meanwhile, the species’ popularity among bird lovers and its economic benefits underscore the importance of protecting the species and its habitats. The Vervain Hummingbird is a unique and fascinating bird found in the Caribbean region.

The species’ taxonomic classification, plumages, molting patterns, and range have undergone reclassification, leading scientists to have a better understanding of the species. The bird’s small size, remarkable hovering capabilities, and territorial behaviors underline its significance in the ecology of its surroundings.

The species’ feeding habits and metabolism adaptions to maintain energy and its unique sexual and breeding habits have further cemented its importance in biology. Effective conservation measures should be implemented to protect the species and its habitats to ensure that Vervain Hummingbirds continue to thrive for generations to come.

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