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10 Fascinating Facts About the Northern Harrier and Cape Parrot

Cape Parrot: Poicephalus robustusThe Cape Parrot is a stunning bird native to South Africa, known for their bright green feathers and vibrant personalities. In this article, we will explore the identification, plumages, molts and other interesting facts about this species.


The Cape Parrot is a small to medium-sized bird, measuring between 33 and 38 cm in length. They have a bright green plumage, with a yellowish-green underside and a red patch on their head above the beak.

They also have a narrow dark band around the neck. Their feet are grey, and the beak is a pale pink color.



The Cape Parrot can be difficult to identify in the wild, but there are several distinguishing characteristics to look out for. Firstly, their bright green coloration in combination with the red patch on their head is unique to this species.

Secondly, their flight pattern is different from other parrots, as they tend to fly higher and in more direct lines.

Similar Species

The Cape Parrot is often confused with other parrot species that share similar coloration. One such species is the Brown-Necked Parrot, which has a similar green plumage but lacks the red head patch.

Another species to watch out for is the Grey-Headed Parrot, which has a grey head and neck.


The Cape Parrot has a single annual molt, during which time they shed their old feathers and grow new ones. This usually occurs in November or December, and takes around 6 weeks to complete.

During this time, the bird may look scruffy or disheveled as they lose their feathers. After the molt, their plumage will appear brighter and more vibrant.


The Cape Parrot has a unique molting pattern compared to other parrot species. After the first year of life, the Cape Parrot undergoes a molt during which they lose their juvenile feathers and acquire their adult plumage.

This molt continues during the bird’s second and third years of life. By their fourth year, the Cape Parrot has acquired their full adult plumage and will no longer undergo annual molting.

Interesting Facts

– The Cape Parrot is considered a threatened species due to habitat loss and illegal capture for the pet trade. – In the wild, Cape Parrots feed on fruit, seeds and nuts.

– Cape Parrots are social birds, forming lifelong relationships with their mates. – They are known for their playful personalities, and can often be seen climbing and jumping around their environment.

– Cape Parrots are also skilled mimics, able to imitate human speech and other sounds they hear in their environment.


The Cape Parrot is a unique bird, known for its striking green plumage and playful personality. Hopefully, this article has provided some insight into the identification, plumages, molts and other interesting facts about this species.

As the Cape Parrot faces threats to its survival, it is important to raise awareness and protect this beautiful bird.

Systematics History

The Northern Harrier (Circus hudsonius) is a medium-sized bird of prey found across North America. Its systematics history has been the subject of ongoing debate, with various taxonomic revisions over the centuries.

Geographic Variation

There is considerable geographic variation in Northern Harrier populations across North America. This variation is reflected in differences in size, coloration, and behavior.

Birds from the eastern and western portions of the continent are visibly different in plumage and other characteristics, but interbreeding can occur where their ranges overlap.


There are currently six recognized subspecies of Northern Harrier:

1. Circus hudsonius hudsonius: This subspecies is found in eastern North America, from the Atlantic coast to the Great Plains region.

2. Circus hudsonius washingtoniensis: This subspecies is found in western North America, from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast.

3. Circus hudsonius columbianus: This subspecies is found in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.

4. Circus hudsonius lutosus: This subspecies is found in the southernmost portion of South America.

5. Circus hudsonius didimus: This subspecies is found in the Caribbean region of North America.

6. Circus hudsonius melvigoris: This subspecies is found in Alaska.

Related Species

The Northern Harrier is a member of the Circus genus of birds of prey, which also includes the Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) and the Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus). These birds share a similar appearance and behavior, including a characteristic, low-flying hunting style over open grasslands.

Historical Changes to Distribution

The Northern Harrier has experienced significant changes in distribution over the centuries due to a range of factors, including habitat loss, pesticide poisoning, and hunting. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, wetland drainage for agriculture and urbanization caused declines in populations throughout the United States.

Additionally, the pesticide DDT had a severe impact on populations in the 1950s and 1960s, through poisoning and reproductive failure.

Conservation Efforts

Since the passage of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act in 1918, the Northern Harrier has been listed as a protected species throughout most of its range. Additionally, the banning of the pesticide DDT in 1972 played a key role in the recovery of Northern Harrier populations.

Today, the Northern Harrier is listed as a species of Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Despite this, some populations remain threatened due to ongoing habitat loss and other factors.


The Northern Harrier is a fascinating bird of prey with a rich systematics history and unique geographic variation. Its various subspecies are found across North America and South America, with some populations still facing threats to their survival.

Conservation efforts are ongoing to protect this species and its important role in its habitats.


Northern Harriers can be found in a variety of habitats across their North American range, including grasslands, marshes, wetlands, and agricultural fields. They are particularly well-adapted to open, grassy habitats and can be found in both natural and created grasslands, such as those created for cattle grazing.

Movements and Migration

Northern Harriers are highly migratory, with populations from across their range heading south to winter in warmer climates during the fall months. During migration periods, Northern Harriers may be seen traveling in groups or “kettles” as they circle high in the sky before setting out on their journey.

Northern Harriers can travel remarkable distances during migration, with some birds flying as far as 3,000 miles from their summer breeding grounds in the Arctic to their wintering grounds in Central and South America. They are also known for their nomadic tendencies that can lead them to cover a larger range in the course of their movements than expected, moving between hunting areas in response to changes in prey abundance.

Hunting and


Northern Harriers are opportunistic hunters and feed on a variety of prey species. They are primarily known to hunt small mammals, such as voles and mice, but also feed on other small birds, reptiles, amphibians and insects.

In winter, when prey is often scarce in the northern latitudes, they can also be found hunting over grasslands carrying out communal hunting of small mammals, as they follow emerging rodent populations, often joining other raptors like Rough-legged Hawks and Golden Eagles in large numbers.

Northern Harriers have unique hunting behaviors which include low-level flight over open grasslands which they cover in an undulating flight pattern with soft flexible wing beats both with their head turned downward in search of prey.

They also use their sense of hearing to locate prey as they have an exceptional hearing capability.

Aerial Courtship Displays

Northern harriers engage in elaborate aerial courtship displays in order to establish breeding pairs. Males will fly high in the air and then rapidly dive towards the ground, before soaring back up again.

This behavior is accompanied by a series of loud calls, which can be heard from quite a distance away. Females then respond by flying towards the males in a series of aerial maneuvers to establish if she wants to mate with this male.


Northern Harriers are unique birds with a fascinating range of behaviors and habitat adaptations. As a highly migratory, nomadic species, they provide critical ecosystem services throughout North America, with their aerial hunting and courtship behaviors serving to inspire and engage bird watchers and wildlife enthusiasts.

Their dependence on open grasslands also underscores the importance of habitat conservation efforts for this and other bird species.

Diet and Foraging

Northern Harriers are opportunistic hunters, with a diet that varies depending on the availability of prey in their habitat. They are predominantly rodent hunters and tend to feed on small mammals such as voles, mice, and shrews, as well as other small animals including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and insects.

Northern Harriers have a unique hunting style that involves low, slow, quartering flight over open areas such as grasslands or agricultural fields. They fly low and close to the ground using their keen eyesight and hearing to locate prey.


Harriers are diurnal and hunt throughout the day from dawn to dusk. They are highly skilled hunters, relying on both sight and sound to locate their prey.

Once prey has been sighted, the Harrier flies low over the ground, dropping rapidly downwards at an angle of about 45 degrees towards its prey, often stooping at the last minute with the talons extended to grasp its prey. They have particularly acute hearing and can hear the rustling and movement of their prey beneath the vegetation cover.


The diet of Northern Harriers is diverse, and consists of grassland or marsh-dwelling mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, insects and amphibians. They are also known to nest near the food sources such as grasshoppers, beetles and other insects to ensure that readily available food is always in proximity to their young.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

Northern Harriers are endothermic, or warm-blooded, animals and maintain an elevated body temperature of around 40C, irrespective of the environment’s temperature. They regulate their body temperature by both behavior and physiology.

They hold their feet up close to their body when perched on a nest, to reduce heat loss through their legs, while also using their feathers to help insulate their body.

Sounds and Vocal


Northern Harriers have a diverse range of sounds that they produce in different contexts. They typically have a loud, hoarse scolding call that is used when they are disturbed during hunting, typically sounding like a “keh” or “kak” sound.


During the breeding season, male Harriers engage in a variety of vocalizations, including a “sky-dance” display call. This consists of a series of high-pitched, keening whistles that are produced while the male Harrier flutters in the air.

Harriers also engage in mutual aerial displays, which involve the male and female flying together, often accompanied by calls and various wing movements.

During the incubation period, both male and female Harriers produce “quiet calls” or “croaking noises” to communicate with each other, often while perched on the nest.

These are soft and low-pitched noises, and are believed to play an important role in maintaining pair bonding during the breeding season.


Northern Harriers are fascinating birds of prey, with unique adaptations that enable them to successfully hunt and forage across a variety of habitats and climates. Their diet, feeding, and metabolism are all intricately connected to their habitat and behavior, while their sounds and vocal behaviors play a critical role in communication during breeding.

These traits underscore their important role in ecosystems throughout North America and add to the diverse and unique wildlife that contributes to the continent’s rich biodiversity.


Northern Harriers are interesting birds with a unique range of behaviors. Their locomotion, self-maintenance, agonistic behavior, and sexual behavior are all adapted to their habitat and serve various ecological functions.


Northern Harriers are skilled flyers and are capable of both sustained flight and agile, maneuverable movement in the air. They rely on their keen sense of sight and hearing to locate prey and navigate through their environment.

They are capable of rapid acceleration and deceleration, with their uniquely-shaped wings enabling them to fly low and close to the ground.


Harriers, like other birds, engage in a wide range of self-maintenance behaviors to ensure their physical well-being. This includes preening, which involves cleaning and oiling their feathers to keep them in optimal condition, as well as bathing, which helps to remove dirt and parasites from their feathers.



Northern Harriers can be highly territorial birds, with both males and females engaging in aggressive behaviors to establish and defend their territories. This may include aerial displays, swoops, and calls to warn off potential competitors.

Harriers also have a unique behavior of “sky dancing,” which is used during courtship and involves both the male and female Harrier performing acrobatic aerial maneuvers in the sky. Sexual


Harriers engage in a variety of sexual behaviors during the breeding season, including courtship displays that involve vocalization, aerial maneuvers, and visual displays.

Males will typically establish territories and perform aerial displays to advertise their presence and attract females. Once a pair has formed, the male will provide food for the female while she is incubating the eggs, a behavior known as courtship feeding.


Northern Harriers breed in open grasslands and marshes, often building their nests near to food sources such as plentiful insect life. They are monogamous and form strong pair bonds that can last for multiple breeding seasons.

Northern Harriers typically breed in the boreal regions of North America during the summer months.

Demography and Populations

Northern Harrier populations have historically been impacted by habitat loss and, in some areas, persecution. However, populations have since rebounded due to conservation efforts and increased protection, particularly in the United States.

The total population of Northern Harriers is estimated to be around 800,000 individuals, with most populations considered to be stable or increasing. Threats to Northern Harrier populations include habitat loss, climate change, and accidental poisoning or trapping.


Northern Harriers are fascinating birds with unique behaviors, well-adapted to their grassland and marshy habitats. Their locomotion, self-maintenance, agonistic, and sexual behaviors are all shaped by their environment and serve critical ecological functions within ecosystems throughout North America.

While challenges remain for Harrier populations, conservation efforts and increased awareness have enabled populations to thrive in many areas, underscoring the importance of continued efforts to protect these and other bird species. In conclusion, the Northern Harrier is a fascinating bird of prey that is well-adapted to its unique range of habitats across North America.

Its hunting behaviors, including its low, slow flight, and keen sense of hearing and sight, have enabled it to thrive in open grasslands and marshlands. Its breeding behaviors, such as sky dancing during courtship, have inspired awe and fascination among bird enthusiasts.

Despite facing challenges such as habitat loss and persecution, conservation efforts and increased protection have led to stable or increasing populations of Northern Harriers in many areas. The Northern Harrier serves as a critical part of the ecosystem, and its successful adaptation to changing environments highlights the importance of protection and conservation of wildlife.

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