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10 Fascinating Facts About the Blue-Capped Motmot

The Blue-capped Motmot, also referred to as the Momotus coeruliceps, is a unique bird species that is found in Central and South America. Known for their vibrant plumage, this bird species is an eye-catcher that has a lot of interesting facts to learn about.

In this article, we will be taking a closer look at the Blue-capped Motmot, including their identification, plumages, and molts.


One of the most distinctive features of the Blue-capped Motmot is its vibrant blue cap that rests atop its head. The upperparts are green while the underparts are of a cobalt blue and turquoise blue combination.

It has a long, serrated tail, which is deeply indented at the tip. They have a long, down-curved bill that is black, with a yellow base, giving the bird a striking appearance.

The eyes are yellow and have a black mask surrounding them. The bird’s legs and feet are grey.



When observing Blue-capped Motmot in the field, it is essential to note that they are quite range-specific. They are usually found in the forest borders, second growth, and forest clearings in lowlands and foothills.

They prefer to live in humid and tropical forests and can be observed perching in mid-story or low levels.

Similar Species

One of the Blue-capped Motmot’s close relatives is the Blue-diademed Motmot (Momotus lessonii), which has a similar appearance, except for the blue line that crosses its forehead, instead of the cap. In addition, the turquoise in the bird’s coloration is more pronounced in the Blue-Diademed Motmot’s underparts than in the Blue-capped Motmot.


Often, the Blue-capped Motmots’ plumages will show variation across geographical regions. For instance, birds from the northern Amazon tend to have a dark green plumage on the back, while those in the central Amazon have a more olive-green upperpart.

Birds from the southern Amazon have a brighter green plumage. The underparts of the bird, depending on the geographical region, may range from turquoise to a darker blue coloration.


While molt pattern varies from region to region, observably, the bird appears to change its feathers all at once. This is a phenomenon that can be said to occur because plumage changes in motmots are rapid and in some seasonal context known.

This means that molt happens just once in a year, in most birds. Motmots do not display annual color changes, unlike many species of birds.


In conclusion, the Blue-capped Motmots are fascinating bird species. Their vibrant plumage and range-restricted nature make them a treasure to observe in the wild.

With the information provided in this article, bird enthusiasts can learn more about the Blue-capped Motmot’s identification, plumages, and molts. If you’re planning to venture out into the wild to observe these birds, our guide will provide a solid foundation for your birdwatching experience.

Systematics History

The Blue-capped Motmot, classified taxonomically as Momotus coeruliceps, belongs to the momotid family, a group of birds found in the Americas. The family comprises six genera, with the Momotus genus being the most widespread.

The Blue-capped Motmot was initially classified by German ornithologist Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach in 1851. However, the debate regarding its taxonomy did not end there, and its classification as a species has undergone multiple revisions over the years.

Geographic Variation

The Blue-capped Motmot is found across Central and South America, where it inhabits humid forests, forest edges, and clearings. The species displays regional variation in terms of morphology.

In some regions, the bird’s plumage may appear greener, while in other regions, it may appear more blue. The color of the bird’s underparts also varies geographically.


The Blue-capped Motmot comprises six subspecies, each with distinct morphological and geographic features. The subspecies, namely M.c. coeruliceps, M.c sincipitalis, M.c. azureiceps, M.c. kalshoveni, M.c. transandeanus, and M.c. viridiceps, are geographically distinct and vary in size, plumage features, and vocalizations.

M.c. coeruliceps is found in the lowlands of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. It has a bright blue cap with a green to olive-green upperpart and dark blue underparts.

M.c. sincipitalis is a subspecies found in Colombia and Venezuela. Unlike the M.c. coeruliceps, it has a blue forehead and a greenish-blue cap.

M.c. azureiceps is found in southeastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, and northeastern Peru. It has a predominantly blue head and upperparts with a slightly flushed olive-green coloration.

M.c. kalshoveni is a highly range-restricted subspecies that lives along the lower foothills of Peru’s Carpish mountain range. It has a blue head, cobalt blue underparts, and olive-green upperparts.

M.c. transandeanus is found in Panama and northern Colombia’s Cauca Valley. Its head and upperparts are mainly greenish-blue, while the underparts are turquoise.

Finally, the M.c. viridiceps is found in northeastern Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. It has a green cap, a dark blue throat, and blue underparts.

Related Species

The Momotidae family consists of six other genera closely related to the Momotus genus. The other genera include Baryphthengus, Aspatha, Electron, Hylomanes, Eumomota, and Phaeornis.

Species in these genera are similar in plumage, vocalizations, and behavior to the Blue-capped Motmot.

Historical Changes to Distribution

Over time, the geographic distribution of the Blue-capped Motmot has been affected by various factors, including deforestation, habitat changes, and human activities. In the past, the bird was mainly confined to primary rainforests, but with the decline of these forests, the bird has adapted to secondary forests, gardens, and plantations.

Despite this adaptation, the Blue-capped Motmot is still under threat from habitat destruction. As human populations continue to expand, anthropogenic activities are encroaching further into the bird’s habitat, leading to a decline in population in the wild.

Climate change is also affecting the distribution of the Blue-capped Motmot, as rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns drive habitat shifts. Research has shown that the bird is sensitive to changes in the environment, and as such, any significant alterations to their habitat may have severe effects on their population.


The Blue-capped Motmot is an interesting bird species with a rich history of taxonomic classification, geographic variation, and distribution patterns. As a range-restricted species, the bird is vulnerable to habitat degradation and is under threat from human activities and climate change.

The information provided in this article is essential for enhancing our understanding of the species and aiding conservation efforts aimed at preserving its population in the wild.


The Blue-capped Motmot is a forest bird that prefers to inhabit the mid-story and lower levels of forests in Central and South America. The bird inhabits a range of forest types, including primary and secondary forests, forest edges, riverbanks, and clearings, and it is often spotted perching in a horizontal position on branches.

The bird’s habitat may vary in its structure and composition, and this can affect the bird’s movements and foraging behaviors. Blue-capped Motmots are found at elevations of up to 1,300 meters above sea level.

Movements and Migration

The Blue-capped Motmot is a non-migratory species, meaning that they do not undergo seasonal movements to different regions. Instead, they occupy the same geographical location throughout the year.

The bird is usually a solitary species, and it is rare to see them in migratory flocks. However, Blue-capped Motmots do display minor movements outside their traditional range when necessary.

These movements are often in response to changes in weather patterns or resource availability. The bird may temporarily move to higher elevations or shift to different forest types to find sufficient food and shelter.

While the Blue-capped Motmot may not migrate on a seasonal basis, its movements within its range are crucial in maintaining stable populations.

Foraging Behavior

Blue-capped Motmots are primarily insectivorous, and they often feed on large insects like beetles, grasshoppers, ants, and termites. They may also feed on small lizards, tree frogs, and small snakes.

The bird hunts its prey by perching on branches and scanning for insects or other prey on the ground below. Upon spotting prey, it pounces on it and then returns to its perch to manipulate the prey and swallow it.

Nesting Habits

The Blue-capped Motmot’s nesting habits are unique, and they play an essential role in environmental conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. The bird prefers to nest in burrows in riverbanks or earthen walls such as those found in road cuts or quarries.

The birds will often excavate these burrows by using their bills and feet, and then they will lay their eggs inside the burrow. The bird’s incubation period lasts approximately three weeks.

During the incubation period, both the male and female will take turns to incubate the eggs. After the chicks hatch, the parents will continue to care for them until they fledge (leave the nest).

Breeding Season

Blue-capped Motmots’ breeding season varies across their range. In Central America, the breeding season occurs between February and April, while in South America, it occurs between August and November.

The birds will nest in burrows, and they will usually lay between one to three eggs. The chicks will hatch after an incubation period of approximately 21 days.

After hatching, the chicks are dependent on their parents for food and protection for about six weeks before they fledge.

Conservation Status

The Blue-capped Motmot is currently classified as a species of Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Despite this classification, the bird still faces significant threats to its population, including habitat destruction, hunting, and climate change.

The bird’s habitat is continually being destroyed due to human activities such as logging, mining, and land conversion for agriculture and urbanization. These activities have resulted in the bird’s range becoming fragmented, making it more vulnerable to extirpation.


The Blue-capped Motmot is a unique bird species that plays an essential role in maintaining the balance of biodiversity in their habitats. Its habitat preference and movements within its range make it an interesting species to observe.

While the bird is not migratory, it displays slight movements in response to changes in the environment, such as food availability. The bird’s foraging behavior is primarily insectivorous, and its nesting habits are unique, with the bird preferring to use burrows to nest.

Despite its current classification as a species of Least Concern, the Blue-capped Motmot’s population remains threatened by habitat destruction, hunting, and climate change. Conservation efforts should aim at mitigating these threats and protecting the bird and its habitat.

Diet and Foraging


Blue-capped Motmots mostly hunt for prey while perching and scanning the ground below. When they spot a prey item, they fly down to catch it in mid-air or grab it while remaining on the perch.

Their bills are adapted for killing insects and other prey items. After capturing a prey item, they fly back to the perch, where they manipulate their catch before swallowing it whole.


The Blue-capped Motmot’s diet comprises mainly insects, arthropods, and small vertebrates, although it may at times feed on berries, fruits, and seeds. Some of their common insect prey items include beetles, ants, termites, caterpillars, grasshoppers, and mantids.

The bird preys on lizards, frogs, and small snakes as their primary vertebrate prey.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

Due to their slow metabolism, Blue-capped Motmots are not adapted to high-intensity activities. Their low metabolism requires a steady intake of energy to maintain their body temperature and other bodily functions.

Therefore, the bird feeds for several hours every day. To regulate their body temperature, Blue-capped Motmots may bask in the sun during the morning to increase their body temperature and then rest in the shade during the afternoon to reduce it.

They may also sit with their wings spread to expose their pale undersides, allowing heat to escape more easily.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior


Blue-capped Motmot birds have a variety of vocalizations that they use for communication. The calls of Blue-capped Motmots are relatively low-pitched, mellow, and hollow-sounding.

They use vocalizations to communicate intra-species, especially when mating or establishing territories. The birds have a “keow” call that is most often heard, and which is used as a territorial signaling call.

They also emit a loud “hooah” call, which is mostly used as a contact call or a warning call to alert others of potential predators. During the courtship and breeding season, they produce softer, melodious calls or twittering notes.

Additionally, Blue-capped Motmots also use non-vocal vocalizations such as tail wagging, wing flicking, and rustling of the leaves to communicate with one another.


The Blue-capped Motmot is a fascinating bird and a master of catching prey with its unique bill. It feeds mainly on insects, small vertebrates, and at times, fruits and seeds.

With their slow metabolism requiring steady energy intake, the bird feeds for several hours every day to maintain their body temperature. Meanwhile, the bird’s low-frequency calling vocalizations are used for communication among individuals, mostly for territory establishment, mating, and warning calls.

Understanding the Blue-capped Motmot’s foraging and vocalization behavior provides key insight into their behavior and population dynamics, contributing to effective conservation strategies aimed at preserving the bird in the wild.



The Blue-capped Motmot is a perching bird that typically moves about by hopping. When needed, it is capable of quick flights in pursuit of prey or to evade predators.

They fly short distances within their habitat and follow a straight course. When flying, they reveal their bright blue underparts, while their wings reveal a distinctive white patch.

Self Maintenance

Blue-capped Motmots have a unique way of grooming themselves. They take their time grooming their feathers, using their bills to pluck out dirty feathers while smoothing down the rest.

In addition, the bird will rub its bill against a branch or bark to sharpen its mandibles, which can be used for defense or to catch prey.

Agonistic Behavior

Blue-capped Motmots, like many other bird species, exhibit unique behavior when it comes to agonistic encounters. When a territory dispute arises between two rivals, one of the birds is likely to initiate the conflict by flying with an upright stance and an arched back, displaying its impressive headgear feathers.

These feathers serve as a signal to ward off potential competitors and indicate the bird’s dominance.

Sexual Behavior

Blue-capped Motmots mate for life, and their courtship displays include melodious songs and a series of flight displays. The birds will sing back and forth, with each partner taking turns to sing a melodious duet.

During displays, one of the birds will fly and hover with an insect in its bill, making it appear like it is cheating. The partner will respond by chasing the bird with the insect, and the two will engage in a playful interaction.

This behavior is believed to strengthen the bond between the two birds.


The Blue-capped Motmot breeds between February and April in Central America and from August to November in South America. The mating process often involves elaborate displays from the male to attract the female.

The pair will engage in mutual preening to establish and reinforce the bond. The female will lay between one to four eggs in a burrow in a riverbank or earthen wall, which they excavate with their bills.

The incubation period lasts for about 3 weeks, and both parents take turns incubating the eggs. After hatching, the chicks are only dependent on their parents for food and protection for six weeks before they fledge.

Demography and Populations

The population of the Blue-capped Motmot is difficult to accurately estimate due to its range-restricted nature and relatively low densities in the wild. However, the bird’s population has been declining, mainly as a result of habitat degradation due to human activities.

According to the IUCN Red List, the Blue-capped Motmot’s population is listed as being of Least Concern. However, the population trend of the bird is decreasing, indicating that future conservation measures must be put in place to protect the bird and its ecosystem.

It is essential to preserve the bird’s preferred habitat and protect it from destructive human activities, which include deforestation, agriculture, logging, and mining.


The Blue-capped Motmot is a unique and fascinating bird species with a wide range of behaviors, encompassing locomotion, self-maintenance, agonistic behavior, and sexual behavior

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