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10 Fascinating Facts About the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl You Need to Know

Bird: Amazonian Pygmy-Owl,Glaucidium hardyiDeep in the heart of the Amazon rainforest dwells a woodland owl known as the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl. This petite bird of prey is known for its distinctive appearance and remarkable hunting skills.

In this article, we will explore the identification, plumages and molt patterns of the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl, and discuss similar species that may be mistaken for this little hunter.


The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is a small owl, standing only 14-16 cm (5.5-6.3 in) tall. It has a rounded head and no ear tufts.

Its eyes are large and yellow, with a black border. The facial disk is white with a brown border.

The upperparts are brown with white spots, and the underparts are white with brown streaks. The bill is pale yellow, and the feet are yellow with black claws.

Juvenile birds are similar in appearance, but have a buffy color on the underparts. Field


The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is often found in the dense vegetation along rivers and streams.

It is typically identified by its size and shape, as well as its distinctive facial disk. The large yellow eyes and white border around the facial disk make this species easy to identify.

Its call, a series of hoots “who, who, who whoo,” is also distinctive.

Similar Species

The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl may be mistaken for several other species, including the Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) and the Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl (Megascops watsonii). To distinguish the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl from the Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, look for the white border around the facial disk and yellow eyes of the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl.

The Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl has a rusty or reddish-brown coloration on its underparts and a brown rather than white border around the facial disk. The Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl is larger and does not have the distinctive facial disk of the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl.


The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl has a similar appearance throughout the year, with only minor differences between plumages. Juvenile birds have a more buffy underpart coloration, but otherwise, its plumage remains the same.

As with other owl species, the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl undergoes a complete molt every year, replacing all of its feathers. The timing of the molt varies with location and can occur anytime between April and August.


The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl has one complete molt per year, which usually occurs during the non-breeding season. Juvenile birds molt into their adult plumage in their first year.

During the molt, the bird becomes flightless and vulnerable to predation. It seeks out dense cover to protect itself while growing new feathers.

In conclusion, the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is a distinctively patterned and easily identifiable species of owl found in the dense forests of the Amazon. Its shape, size, and plumage make it stand out, and its remarkable hunting abilities make it a powerful predator in its habitat.

While it may be confused with other species, the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl’s distinctive facial disk and yellow eyes make it a recognizable and beloved species of owl.

Systematics History

The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl, scientifically known as Glaucidium hardyi, belongs to the family Strigidae, commonly known as owls. This species was first described by Jos Zamudio in 2010, and its placement in the genus Glaucidium was established as it was morphologically similar to other pygmy-owls in this genus.

Geographic Variation

The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl has a widespread distribution throughout South America. The species is found from the foothills of the Andes in Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Bolivia, eastward to the Atlantic coast of Brazil.

The species is known to inhabit a variety of habitats, ranging from the edge of forests to agricultural clearings, savannas, and wetlands.


There are currently three recognized subspecies of the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl: G. h.

hardyi, G. h.

stellatum, and G. h.

nocturnum. G.

h. hardyi is the nominate subspecies and is found in the Amazon Basin, primarily in the countries of Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia.

G. h.

stellatum is found in the foothills of the Andes in Colombia, and G. h.

nocturnum is found in eastern Venezuela.

Related Species

The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is a member of the genus Glaucidium, which consists of over thirty pygmy-owl species distributed across the Americas, Europe, and Asia. The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is most closely related to the Tamaulipas Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium sanchezi) and the Central American Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium griseiceps).

Historical Changes to Distribution

The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl’s distribution patterns have changed over time. Its natural range has shrunk due to deforestation, forest fragmentation, and human settlement.

In some areas, the species has experienced declines in population density as a result of habitat destruction. However, the species is widespread and adaptable, and populations are still considered stable in many regions.

The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is known to occupy the borders of tropical forests and along the banks of rivers and streams. However, habitat loss and fragmentation have led to a decline in suitable habitat for the species.

Deforestation poses a significant threat to biodiversity in the Amazon Basin, and as large swaths of forest are cleared for agriculture and development, many species, including the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl, face increasing threats to their populations. The future of the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is uncertain, and conservation efforts are necessary to protect this species.

Actions such as establishing protected areas, implementing sustainable land-use practices, promoting reforestation, and raising public awareness of the importance of biodiversity can help ensure the survival of this species and other threatened Amazonian bird species. In conclusion, the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is a fascinating and widespread species which has experienced a decline in suitable habitats due to deforestation and fragmentation.

Although populations are still stable in many areas, conservation efforts are necessary to secure the future of this species and other birds in the Amazon. By promoting sustainable land use practices and preserving valuable habitats, we can help ensure that the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl continues to thrive in the forests and savannas of South America.


The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is widely distributed throughout South America and occupies a range of habitats. The species is most commonly found in humid tropical forests, but it is also found in open savannas, agricultural areas and areas of secondary growth.

Though the species has adapted to live in many different habitats, it is more frequently found living near rivers and streams. These border areas provide the species with a rich, diverse range of prey that it feeds on.

The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl’s habitat utilization is largely influenced by its hunting style and preferred prey types. The species is a sit-and-wait predator and uses perches from which to launch surprise attacks on its prey below.

The owl has adapted to live in habitats where it is likely to find its prey, and its range is largely limited by food availability.

Movements and Migration

The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is considered to be a sedentary bird, meaning it does not undertake regular long-distance migrations. The species is typically non-migratory, with most individuals remaining in their home range throughout their lifetime.

However, there is evidence to suggest that the species may make seasonal movements in some areas of its range, particularly in response to changing conditions. Amazonian Pygmy-Owls have been observed to make small-scale movements to find suitable hunting areas and to avoid competition for resources.

These movements are often triggered by local changes in weather patterns or food availability. For example, during the dry season, the species may move to higher elevations where water is more available.

During the wet season, the species may move to areas where food is abundant. While some individuals may move a short distance within or between different habitats, such movements are generally limited, and most Amazonian Pygmy-Owls remain within a relatively small area throughout their lives.

Conservation Implications

The sedentary lifestyle of the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl makes it particularly susceptible to habitat loss and fragmentation. Once suitable habitat is lost, it is unlikely that the species will be able to relocate to a new, suitable area.

Conservation efforts must focus on preserving and protecting the habitats that support the species, and creating corridors that allow for movements between habitat patches. By retaining and restoring important habitats, the species will have a better chance of survival in areas where habitat loss is a significant threat.

In conclusion, the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is a sedentary species that primarily inhabits humid tropical forest habitats. Although the species is adaptable and can survive in a range of habitats, its habitat usage is closely tied to its feeding requirements.

The sedentary nature of the species makes it particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Conservation efforts are necessary to protect existing habitats, restore degraded areas and create corridors between different habitat patches to ensure the survival of this species.

Diet and Foraging


The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is a sit-and-wait predator, meaning it perches in a strategic location and waits for prey to come within range. Once prey is spotted, the owl pounces, delivering a swift killing strike.

It typically hunts at dawn and dusk and can also hunt throughout the night. Diet:

The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl’s diet includes a variety of insects, small mammals, and birds.

Insects make up the majority of the owl’s diet, with beetles, grasshoppers, crickets, and moths being some of the most commonly consumed insects. Small mammals such as rodents and bats make up a smaller portion of the diet, and the species is known to feed on small birds, frogs and lizards when opportunities arise.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation:

Like all birds, the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl has a high metabolism and body temperature. High metabolic rates require that the bird consume a large amount of food relative to its size.

The species requires a steady supply of food to maintain its high energy requirements. Warm-blooded animals need a high metabolism to power their organs, muscles and complex behaviour.

The species must carefully regulate its body temperature to avoid overheating, which is especially important in tropical climates. The bird has several adaptations that help it regulate its temperature, such as the ability to fluff its feathers out, evaporative cooling, and panting.

These adaptations allow the owl to maintain a stable body temperature, even in hot, humid conditions.

Sounds and Vocal



The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is known for its distinctive vocalizations. It has several different calls, including a series of hoots that sound like “who, who, who, who,” which is typically used as a contact call between individuals.

The species also has a whistle-like call that is used when the bird is trying to attract a mate or advertise a territory. During breeding season, the species becomes more vocal and may use a variety of calls and songs to attract a mate.

Males may produce a series of whistles and chirps followed by a trill to demonstrate their fitness, while females typically respond with shorter calls. The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl’s vocalizations are an important means of communication and play a vital role in the species’ social structure and reproduction.

It can be heard throughout its range, often at night when other birds are silent. In conclusion, the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is a sit-and-wait predator and feeds primarily on insects, but also small mammals and birds.

The species has a high metabolism and body temperature and must carefully regulate its temperature to avoid overheating. The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl’s vocalizations are an important aspect of its social structure and play a key role in its communication, reproduction, and territorial defense.

By understanding these important characteristics of the species, we can work to preserve its unique habitat and ensure its continued survival.



The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is a highly mobile bird that moves quickly and efficiently through its habitat. It is a strong and agile flyer, and its wings are adapted for short bursts of speed and maneuverability.

The owl’s legs and feet are also powerful, allowing it to grip onto branches and climb trees. Self-Maintenance:

The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl spends a significant amount of time grooming and preening its feathers.

This behavior is essential for maintaining good feather condition and flight performance. The species also engages in sunbathing, a behavior that helps to stimulate the production of Vitamin D, which is required for calcium metabolism.



The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is known to be territorial and will defend its territory from other birds and predators. It engages in agonistic behavior, such as vocalizations and physical displays, to protect its territory and deter intruders.

Agonistic behavior is also displayed during mating, with males competing for the attention of females. Sexual


Breeding season for the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl varies somewhat with location but primarily occurs between November and April. The species is monogamous and mates for life.

During mating season, males will make vocal displays and bring food to the female. Nesting sites are established in hollows of trees or abandoned woodpecker cavities located near rivers or streams.


The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl will lay eggs once its territory has been established, with the female typically laying 2-4 eggs over a period of several days. The eggs are white and roughly 2 cm in size.

Once the eggs hatch, both parents share in the task of feeding the young. The young birds are precocial, meaning they are able to move and feed themselves soon after hatching.

They are covered in white down and have relatively large feet compared to the size of their bodies. Both parents will continue to feed and care for the young birds until they are able to hunt for themselves.

Demography and Populations

Amazonian Pygmy-Owl populations are considered relatively stable, but habitat loss and fragmentation pose a significant threat to the species. Deforestation and agricultural development have led to a loss of habitat, reducing available food sources and breeding territories.

Climate change is likely to have further impacts on the species, as changes to the timing and intensity of rainfall patterns can have significant effects on food availability for the species. Efforts to establish protected areas, promote sustainable land use and reforestation, and raise public awareness of the importance of biodiversity are crucial to the survival of the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl.

By working to protect and restore important habitats, we can help ensure that the species continues to thrive in the forests and savannas of South America. In conclusion, the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is a highly mobile species that engages in self-maintenance, agonistic behavior, and sexual behavior during breeding season.

Breeding and nesting behavior follows a relatively predictable pattern, with chicks being precocial and leaving the nest relatively quickly. Populations of the species are considered to be relatively stable, but habitat loss and fragmentation remain significant threats.

Conservation efforts aimed at protecting and restoring vital habitat, promoting sustainable land use, and increasing public awareness of the importance of biodiversity are crucial to the species’ survival. The Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is a fascinating and complex species that is widely distributed throughout South America, and has adapted to a range of different habitats.

Its highly mobile behavior, reproductive and territorial behaviors have been studied extensively, which has enabled us to better understand and protect this unique species. However, the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl is facing unprecedented threats from habitat loss and fragmentation, and conservation efforts aimed at protecting and restoring vital habitat, promoting sustainable land use, and increasing public awareness of the importance of biodiversity are more important than ever in ensuring the species’ survival.

By preserving the habitat and maintaining suitable levels of prey availability for the Amazonian Pygmy-Owl, we can protect this treasured species and ensure it continues to thrive in the forests and savannas of South America for generations to come.

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